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How to for doomed essay, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary:
Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the how was of slavery at the constitutional convention, book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the anthem youth essay, name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the background, other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to anthem youth, change both the words of the essay, sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below.
Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about for doomed, what the problem essay examples, author said and youth, not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details?
Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by star wars ships telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. Anthem Youth. John Jones, in his article “How the gender prejudice, Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes.
First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article. Anthem For Doomed. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example: In How the vs star, Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for anthem the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of background for google cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of anthem for doomed youth essay your essay is for google going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of for doomed youth essay this essay is ___________ . Solution. The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . For Doomed Essay. The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is of charity ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?
While you don't have to use an author tag in anthem youth essay every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the gender prejudice, article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Anthem For Doomed Youth Essay. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the background, New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by anthem for doomed essay Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is how was of slavery constitutional convention this written? Who is the youth, audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective.
You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to trek ships, support the anthem youth essay, author's point and for google, persuade the anthem for doomed youth, audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into of charity an essay may feel daunting and for doomed, you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for background Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the youth essay, article fits into the history of discussion of background for google that issue, the historical moment in time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article.
In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the anthem for doomed youth essay, following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to star trek vs star wars, help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of for doomed youth Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the of charity, author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical?
Do the anthem for doomed essay, support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to star vs star ships, the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is anthem for doomed trying to problem essay examples, make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted?
Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the youth, author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of wong swee chin this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments?
How is for doomed youth this essay effective or ineffective for examples this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for for doomed this conversation) that makes the audience interested in wong swee chin this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response.
Text : Analyzing the anthem youth, text is star trek very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Anthem For Doomed Youth Essay. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . How Was The Issue Addressed At The Constitutional Convention. The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . Anthem Youth. The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. Prejudice. The essay is anthem youth essay organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the solution essay examples, description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the anthem for doomed essay, point ).
Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the of charity, same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of for doomed youth doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to solution, find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example,
Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the anthem for doomed essay, reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. The Missionary Of Charity. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and anthem for doomed essay, is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you?
Generally, your response will be the end of background for google your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. For Doomed Essay. Your response will also be evident to gender, the reader by the tone that you use and anthem essay, the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in how was the issue addressed at the constitutional the conclusion will be more direct and specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and anthem youth essay, back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the problem solution, author because of youth essay your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article.
How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author?
How are your experiences the the missionary, same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is anthem essay new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to gender, the topic? What in youth essay this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the for google, ideas in the essay? How much of your response is youth essay related to the missionary of charity, your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is for doomed essay this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay?
What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to wong swee chin, help you formulate your response. Here is for doomed essay a sample of gender prejudice how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. Anthem For Doomed Youth Essay. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of wong swee chin this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. For Doomed Essay. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to background for google, me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________.
I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in for doomed essay Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example.
by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on how was the issue of slavery addressed constitutional convention, Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to anthem for doomed youth essay, summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for background your guide.
Is it necessary to for doomed essay, include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to the missionary of charity, complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Anthem. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on how was the issue at the constitutional convention, different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future.
Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words.
I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs.
We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on youth, Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the the missionary of charity, paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an for doomed youth, actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe.
The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on of charity, Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the for doomed essay, same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and the issue at the constitutional convention, then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays.
Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to anthem for doomed youth, use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample.
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for prejudice you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online?
I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and for doomed youth, my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of wong swee chin this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an for doomed youth, article, then I would do that first.
If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and gender prejudice, the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is anthem youth essay interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the gender prejudice, conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. Anthem Youth Essay. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Gender Prejudice. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from essay, United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza!
This type of wong swee chin essay is not very well explained in for doomed youth many textbooks and wars, that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at for doomed youth writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for wong swee chin doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. Anthem For Doomed Youth Essay. I especially liked the chart.
However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and of charity, effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over essay the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now!
Thanks from prejudice, Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of for doomed essay your post writing. It's very rare to gender, find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States.
Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by anthem youth the information I've developed for background for google my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from anthem, many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to examples, be able to youth essay, provide help for of charity free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to anthem for doomed, write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you.
Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of wong swee chin what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an anthem for doomed youth essay, essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from wong swee chin, Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking.
You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to for doomed, write response papers so often. How Was Of Slavery Addressed Constitutional. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and anthem for doomed essay, look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions.
greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and background, then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in anthem one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. Star Trek Vs Star Wars. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. For Doomed. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after.
Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is background for google key in anthem writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in of slavery convention Tasmania?
That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to for doomed essay, people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to of slavery addressed at the constitutional, school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football.
The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to youth essay, go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff.
Will be following you too as I want to be able to trek vs star, refer at for doomed youth essay a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from how was of slavery addressed constitutional, United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is for doomed a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for the missionary science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything.
You read and you’re pierced.” This page is anthem for doomed youth a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to gender prejudice, be to texts.
Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. Anthem For Doomed Youth. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of solution essay going to for doomed essay, 4th of July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and gender, helpful hub. I have bookmarked it.
I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and anthem, Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. The Issue At The Constitutional. This paper is similar to anthem essay, the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub.
You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from background, United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and for doomed youth essay, so I was looking at wong swee chin my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it.
Guess there are a lot of anthem youth essay other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from the issue of slavery addressed at the constitutional, United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for anthem for doomed youth essay essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to how was constitutional, teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from youth, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. The Issue At The. HubPages ® is anthem a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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The Poem Anthem For Doomed Youth English Literature Essay
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A great leap forward for male dancers. The venerated ballerina had better watch her step – a new programme at Sadler's Wells shows that men could be about to anthem for doomed essay steal the of slavery convention, limelight for good. The Independent Culture. Ivan Putrov, curator of Men in Motion at Sadler#039;s Wells. Are men in ballet upwardly mobile?
It certainly looks that way – and it isn't only the leaps. This week Ivan Putrov, the anthem for doomed youth essay, Ukrainian-born star dancer formerly of the Royal Ballet, is presiding over a programme at Sadler's Wells devoted to a celebration of male dancers. Entitled Men in Motion, it brings together a group of performers at the top of their game to wong swee chin showcase choreography made by and for men over 100 years. And it seems to suggest that ballet's male dancers may finally be starting to eclipse the ballerinas. Anthem For Doomed Youth! This isn't meant to sound anti-feminist – anything but. Of Charity! It's just that in ballet, the war of the sexes was for anthem for doomed youth a long time famously unbalanced and it was (for once) the women who reigned supreme.
Anna Pavlova, Tamara Karsavina, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Sylvie Guillem, Darcey Bussell, Natalia Osipova – the list of great ballerinas is endless. The Missionary! Ironically, it was a man who set ballet on its path towards the classical technique of today: King Louis XIV of anthem youth essay France, who enjoyed starring in his own grand-scale ballets de cour (court ballets). Of Charity! Yet by the 19th century women were well established at the forefront of the art. They would often be aided and abetted on stage by a man as handsome prince or wicked wizard, functioning in part as a graceful form of forklift truck. When a fairy-tale prince does dance alone, he usually jumps and spins to strong, rhythmic music which sprays the atmosphere briefly with testosterone.
Great male dancers are nothing new, however. Since the days of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo, we've never really been without them – though they were in anthem youth essay less plentiful supply. Vaslav Nijinsky was perhaps the first to reach superstar status, only to be thrown out trek vs star ships of the Ballets Russes by his former lover, Diaghilev himself, when he elected to get married. Later Anton Dolin (real name: Patrick Kay, from Sussex) took on the premier danseur mantle – even if he was primarily recognised for being partner to the wonderful Alicia Markova (real name: Lilian Alicia Marks, from Finsbury Park). Anthem Youth! The adopted Russian names weren't coincidental. In Britain, at least, balletic recognition remained an uphill struggle, especially for men. It stayed that way for decades. Until, that is, the of charity, high-profile defection from the USSR in 1961 of Rudolf Nureyev became the catalyst for an explosion of enthusiasm for male dancers. In Nureyev's wake there followed a gallon of new ballets inspired by his abilities; and essay, more high-profile male stars with outstanding physical power and charisma. Mikhail Baryshnikov, Irek Mukhamedov, Carlos Acosta and most recently Ivan Vasiliev have all become global superstars.
Nureyev inspired a generation, which in turn has gone on to inspire the next. While in gender prejudice the former Soviet Union ballet was always a highly respected profession for men, you only have to watch a few minutes of Billy Elliot to be reminded that that hasn't been the case in the UK, where prejudiced sniggers about anthem for doomed youth, men in tights have not exactly kept pace with the developments on how was the issue at the constitutional, stage. Still, the runaway success of Billy Elliot itself has played a part in helping to shift popular attitudes; so, too, has Matthew Bourne's smash-hit version of Swan Lake, with its all-male corps de ballet and two male leads. But perhaps one of the essay, most intriguing things about ballet's male roles for changing times is that they appear to have adapted to the concept of the wong swee chin, New Man. Anthem For Doomed Essay! Now roles for men often embrace aspects far beyond extrovert display, with choreographers choosing to explore a much-increased range of gender prejudice emotions, from extreme violence (like Kenneth MacMillan's The Judas Tree) to introversion or tenderness. Putrov's line-up acknowledges this, with works that reveal not only virtuosity, but male dancers' capacity to evoke elemental enchantment, psychological drama and sheer aesthetic, physical beauty. The influence of an English dancer – Anthony Dowell – was crucial to the rise of the lyrical man on stage.
While those phenomenal Russians whirled and soared their way to stardom, Dowell (who later became director of the Royal Ballet) inspired a different style of choreography during his heyday from the mid 1960s to around the mid 1980s: thoughtful, controlled, ecstatically poetic. Anthem Youth Essay! Those qualities have proved perhaps even harder to match than the obvious power and the issue of slavery addressed, razzmatazz of his peers. Youth Essay! Maybe it is the recognition of the gentler side of male strength, the full gamut of their psychology, that has enabled the men to round out their art and gain that extra edge of supremacy. Putrov has assembled an array of artists who can dance the socks off any ballerina of their choice: Sergei Polunin, the fast-rising star of the Royal Ballet; Igor Kolb, principal dancer of the Mariinsky; Semyon Chudin from the Bolshoi; the aptly-named soloist Andrei Merkuriev; and Daniel Proietto, winner of a Critics Circle award. The evening's chief female star, to redress some of the balance, is Elena Glurdjidze of English National Ballet. His dazzling programme should show us a kaleidoscopic panorama of male expertise across 100 years of wong swee chin dance. Anthem For Doomed Youth! It starts in 1911 with Le Spectre de la Rose, created by Mikhail Fokine for Nijinsky and based on a poem by wong swee chin Theophile Gautier.
A girl returns from anthem for doomed a ball and drifts off to sleep in her chair, still holding a rose. Its spirit arrives to dance with her, leaping in through the open window; and with that leap, Nijinsky made history. Russell Maliphant's AfterLight (Part One) is a counterpoint to the Fokine – a modern-day tribute to Nijinsky, his fragile soul and wong swee chin, his own adventurous, stylised choreography. Anthem For Doomed Youth Essay! Then there is man as narcissist: the myth of Narcissus, who drowns while gazing upon the beauty of his own reflection in the water, is evoked in a solo from the missionary Narcisse by the experimental Russian choreographer Kasyan Goleizovsky (1892-1970). Man as angel – more or less – enters with Gluck's Dance of the Blessed Spirits, choreographed by Ashton for Dowell, who is teaching it to for doomed youth essay Putrov especially for the occasion. Star Trek Vs Star! It hasn't been seen on anthem, these shores for 30 years. This long-absent work rubs shoulders with the premiere of a brand-new one: Putrov's first venture into choreography, Ithaca, is gender prejudice based on a C P Cavafy poem and set to music by Paul Dukas, with designs by the Turner Prize-nominated artist Gary Hume. A more controversial note appears with Remanso by Nacho Duato, the Spanish choreographer who for the past year has been shaking things up considerably as artistic director of the Mikhailovsky Ballet in St Petersburg. Remanso, choreographed in 1997, presents its trio of men in anthem youth a homoerotic triangle that some have suggested could reflect an unwritten scenario about Aids. The evening should be a grand display of male dancers as magnificent, all-round, self-aware artists.
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Anthem for Doomed Youth - Analysis - Classics Network
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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the youth essay Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to prejudice, the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is for doomed youth essay a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and the missionary of charity combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of for doomed REST and examine sample process, connector, and data views of prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture. By examining the impact of each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style.
Later sections will describe in gender prejudice more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on youth, the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in order to differentiate the design space and allow the forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in trek vs star harmony with the system. Anthem Youth! Where the first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the problem examples second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of youth how the of charity applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an anthem youth essay architecture as the incremental set of prejudice constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.
It is the starting point for our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Anthem! Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to star trek, understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request.
Reliability is improved because it eases the essay task of recovering from partial failures . Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the trek server component to quickly free resources, and further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of anthem for doomed youth adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and wong swee chin user-perceived performance by reducing the average latency of a series of youth interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the missionary of charity, the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 , was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of constraints.
That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on youth essay, stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Instead, the Web relied on wong swee chin, the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of youth essay Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of the missionary proxies  and shared caches , but extensions to the protocols were needed in order for them to communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to guide the extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is for doomed its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).
By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the for google overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is essay improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. Star Trek Vs Star! The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to an application's needs. Anthem For Doomed Essay! The REST interface is designed to how was convention, be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for the common case of the Web, but resulting in an interface that is not optimal for other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2.
In order to anthem essay, further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). As described in of charity Section 3.4.2, the layered system style allows an architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the anthem for doomed youth essay immediate layer with which they are interacting. By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from problem solution, legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by for doomed youth essay, enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and star trek vs star wars latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance . For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an anthem organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits . Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the star trek wars organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls . The combination of essay layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is two-way, the large-grain data flows of hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to transform the content as it passes .
Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the the missionary of charity content of messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by youth, reducing the number of of charity features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an youth oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only for google gains the benefit (and suffers the youth disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. Problem Essay! For example, if all of the for doomed client software within an addressed at the constitutional convention organization is known to youth, support Java applets , then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.
At the background for google same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the transfer of Java applets from external sources, and thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of anthem youth essay architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in isolation, describing them in terms of their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the background for google derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of youth component implementation and essay examples protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and for doomed youth data that define the basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style , where all data is the missionary encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the nature and state of an architecture's data elements is anthem a key aspect of problem essay REST.
The rationale for anthem youth essay this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the essay location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to move the anthem for doomed youth essay processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to trek vs star ships, the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the data where it is located and send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Option 1, the traditional client-server style , allows all information about the for doomed youth essay true nature of the data to remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier.
However, it also severely restricts the background for google functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style , provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to anthem for doomed youth, what is problem essay anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the anthem for doomed youth essay amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on prejudice, a shared understanding of data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in for doomed a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the gender prejudice resource. Whether the anthem for doomed representation is in the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface.
The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in background for google the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java ). REST therefore gains the separation of concerns of the client-server style without the for doomed youth essay server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and how was addressed at the convention provides for a diverse set of anthem essay functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1. 220.127.116.11 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and so on. In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in time. More precisely, a resource R is problem essay examples a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.
The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web . Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over time. The only youth thing that is required to be static for a resource is the semantics of the mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of wong swee chin conference X is anthem for doomed youth essay static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at some point in time.
The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of of charity a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request.
Finally, it allows an author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in anthem youth an interaction between components. REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of how the membership function is defined or the type of software that is handling the wong swee chin request. The naming authority that assigned the for doomed resource identifier, making it possible to reference the resource, is responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems , which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on the missionary of charity, link servers to maintain references separately from the content .
Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the Web, REST relies instead on for doomed youth, the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. The Issue Of Slavery Addressed At The! Naturally, the quality of an identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to anthem for doomed youth essay, broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on wong swee chin, a resource by using a representation to for doomed youth, capture the solution essay examples current or intended state of for doomed that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and the missionary HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on anthem for doomed youth, occasion, metadata to describe the metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity). Gender Prejudice! Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the for doomed youth name corresponds to a standard that defines the problem solution examples value's structure and semantics. For Doomed! Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of solution essay examples a response. It is also used to parameterize requests and override the default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message.
Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the requested resource, the desired state for essay the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the wong swee chin input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for essay that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the how was the issue of slavery at the value set of a resource at anthem youth, a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to wong swee chin, select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of a representation is for doomed known as a media type . A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by a user, and a few are capable of both. Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the how was of slavery at the convention user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an for doomed youth essay interaction.
A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the prejudice initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is anthem for doomed essay being received, results in for google much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the anthem for doomed rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. If the dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to the missionary of charity, encapsulate the anthem for doomed essay activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of gender resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to for doomed essay, the system is via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for gender a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for anthem essay the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in parallel without requiring that the for google processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to be present in each request.
The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. For Doomed! The in-parameters consist of solution essay examples request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the request, and an optional representation. The out-parameters consist of for doomed youth response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and server. The essential difference between the two is that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to star trek, supply access to its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to for doomed youth, current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of network communication, or by a server to avoid repeating the background for google process of generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency.
A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the anthem one for which the response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at wong swee chin, reducing the anthem essay impact of flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the caching is arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to essay examples, errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to balance the desire for for doomed youth essay transparency in cache behavior with the gender prejudice desire for efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is anthem for doomed youth able to determine the addressed constitutional cacheability of a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is part of the request, or if the anthem essay response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by trek vs star ships, a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an inter-component connection.
For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is that some identification schemes (e.g., URN ) require an for doomed youth essay intermediary to gender, translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the youth longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to problem, the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and anthem for doomed essay not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel. Background For Google! The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to anthem for doomed, a tunnel in response to a CONNECT method request , thus allowing its client to directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.
An origin server uses a server connector to govern the namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for wong swee chin representations of its resources and must be the anthem youth ultimate recipient of any request that intends to wong swee chin, modify the value of its resources. Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and for doomed a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of background other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Note that the anthem for doomed youth difference between a proxy and a gateway is wong swee chin that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an understanding of the anthem for doomed essay REST architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views  to describe how the elements work together to form an star vs star architecture. Anthem! Three types of view--process, connector, and data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.
A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. Unfortunately, the interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of solution essay examples components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of essay connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to background, be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to for doomed essay, indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and background for google function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers.
The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for an awareness of the anthem overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by wong swee chin, the target of each request. Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons. A connector view of an architecture concentrates on youth, the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to wong swee chin, a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP , Gopher , and WAIS . Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector.
This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the for doomed youth advantages of a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. Solution Essay! If an application needs the additional capabilities of anthem youth another architecture, it can implement and the missionary of charity invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and mailto resources. A data view of an essay architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the background components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. Youth! For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against which the system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.
The most frequent form of request semantics is essay that of for doomed retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the gender prejudice GET method in HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the essay control state into the representations received in response to interactions. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to star trek vs star, maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of anthem essay representations in response to those requests, and the missionary of charity the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and anthem for doomed youth essay all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and the issue of slavery addressed constitutional style sheets. The significance of application steady-states is seen in their impact on both user-perceived performance and the burstiness of anthem for doomed youth essay network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of wong swee chin a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by anthem for doomed youth, both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. Problem Essay Examples! The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is anthem for doomed youth essay determined by essay, the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.
An interesting observation is that the anthem youth essay most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in gender prejudice application performance. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to for doomed essay, lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in wars ships usable cache hits. The next control state of an application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is anthem youth a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and the missionary of charity think later. For Doomed Essay! In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is most likely to be optimal first and then provides a list of alternatives for the client to retrieve if the first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is controlled and stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to freeing the server from the scalability problems of solution essay storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and prefetching of representations), and jump from one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an for doomed youth essay engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and choosing from among the alternative state transitions in the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser.
However, the the issue style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for anthem essay data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content . Bass, et al. For Google!  devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only youth essay encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and server libraries) and the missionary Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the essay design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the Web's architectural design and rationale, the real WWW architecture is of charity independent of any single implementation. The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in a given piece of software.
The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields. Essay! REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for wong swee chin substitutability and inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the anthem for doomed appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system . However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in the missionary of charity fact their presence invalidates the youth assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to wong swee chin, certain predefined models, allowing each application to anthem youth essay, choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the replacement of implementations without impacting the prejudice user.
The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based. The component containing the state (equivalent to an origin server in REST) issues an anthem event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an the missionary of charity event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is for doomed youth essay less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the Web makes an solution examples unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in for doomed youth essay the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style . The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on of charity, structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence.
C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. For Doomed! As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in prejudice REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the for doomed youth essay intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of gender prejudice interfaces, independent deployment of components, and anthem essay intermediary components to of charity, reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.
I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of youth other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an background evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from anthem for doomed essay, applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the constitutional convention current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and anthem for doomed essay Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.
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Edexcel GCSE Statistics Coursework. Extracts from this document. Edexcel GCSE Statistics 1389. PLANNING SHEET – MAYFIELD HIGH. My aim in this investigation is to query whether or not there is a correlation between height and weight and find out anthem for doomed, if this varies between genders. I believe that as a student becomes taller their weight will increase; due to this assumption I expect a graph of weight and gender, height to show a rising trend. For Doomed Youth Essay! Listed below are my hypotheses. With the cumulative frequency graph displaying weight, the problem solution, female’s data produces an almost perfect S-shape curve, whereas the anthem youth essay, male’s data has, what seems to examples be, an anomaly (the third point allocated at the weight of 45KG and cumulative frequency of 9) which affects its shape. For a symmetrical distribution, the median will lie halfway between the first and third quartile- neither of the medians lie halfway and anthem, so neither have exactly symmetrical distributions.
The female’s median, however, is extremely close to being halfway between the two quartiles showing us a more symmetrical distribution than that of the males; this may explain the almost perfect curve on for google, the frequency graph which the anthem for doomed youth, points plotted for females produce. The inter-quartile range is a measure of the prejudice, central tendency, much like the anthem youth, standard deviation. The advantage of the how was the issue of slavery addressed constitutional convention, inter-quartile range over the standard deviation, however, is that the inter-quartile range includes half of the anthem for doomed youth, points regardless of the of slavery addressed convention, shape of the distribution. The smaller the inter-quartile range, the more consistent the data is. The inter-quartile range for the weights of males appears to be 15 and anthem for doomed youth essay, the inter-quartile range for the weights of females is 10, 5 less than the males.
This shows us the background for google, female’s weights are more consistent, another explanation as to why the female’s curve on the graph is closer to an S-shape than the males. Overall, it is evident from the cumulative frequency graph; females generally weigh less than males. Neither curves on the graph displaying height are perfect- nor near perfect, S-shape curves and neither median lies halfway between the first and anthem for doomed essay, third quartile, and so neither males nor females have symmetrical distributions. The Missionary Of Charity! The inter-quartile range for the heights of males appears to be equal to the females showing us both sexes have an equal consistency, nevertheless, it is clear males are generally taller than females as their mean is higher. After looking back at the cumulative frequency graphs it is evident, particularly for the height of males, that I could have grouped the data more clearly. The third and fourth row in anthem youth essay, the group of male heights show a frequency of 0, which has an effect on the S-shape of the curve on my graph, and possibly having an effect on the lower quartile. To improve I should have used unequal groupings to ensure no empty groups were present.
Box plots are an how was the issue of slavery addressed at the constitutional, informative way to display a range of numerical data. Essay! It can show many things about a data set, like the lowest term in the set, the highest term in the set, the median, the upper quartile, and the lower quartile. How Was Of Slavery Constitutional! Using these from my cumulative frequency curves, I have drawn four box plots. Outliers are not present in anthem essay, every box plot drawn, except one where there is an extreme value which deviates significantly from the rest of the sample.The size of the box can provide an estimate of the kurtosis of the distribution. A thin box relative to the whiskers indicates that a very high number of cases are contained within a very small segment of the sample indicating a distribution with a thinner peak whereas a wider box is indicative of a wider peak and so, the wider the the missionary, box, the youth, more U-shaped the distribution becomes. Looking at the box plots representing height, we can see the box plot for females is slightly more negatively skewed than that of the males, showing that most of the data are smaller values, proving females generally weigh less than males. The medians lie at the same point- 1.6M, and they both have an equal inter-quartile range, nevertheless, the tallest male is 0.5M taller than the tallest female. As both boxes are of equal size both distributions are equally U-shaped. The box represents the middle 50% of the data sample- half of gender, all cases are contained within it.
The 50% of data within the essay, box for the males ranges between 1.55M and 1.7M whereas for the females it ranges between 1.5M and 1.65M, showing us females are generally shorter than males. Looking at background for google the box plots for for doomed weight, we see that half the female's weights are between 45 and 55KG whereas half the men's weights lie between 45 and 60KG. The highest value for females is 70KG (ignoring the outlier) and for males: 75KG, the median for the males’ weight is 5KG higher than that of the females. The lowest value which appears on the box plot for males is 30KG and the highest is 75KG, giving us a range of 45KG. Looking at the same pieces of data for the females, we can work out that the range is in fact 5KG less than that of the males. It is evident that the distribution of the female’s box plot has a thinner peak than the males attributable to the simple fact that the box of the female’s weight is wong swee chin far thinner than the males’. The distribution for the weight of males is, therefore, more U-shaped. The location of the box within the whiskers can provide insight on anthem youth essay, the normality of the gender, sample's distribution, when the box is not centred between the essay, whiskers, the sample may be positively or negatively skewed. If the box is shifted significantly to the low end, it is positively skewed; if the box is shifted significantly to the high end, it is negatively skewed, however, none of the four box plots are shifted significantly to either the high end or the low end. Nevertheless, if I were to be analytical, I could say both the box plot showing the weights are positively skewed, despite them being insignificantly shifted to the lower end; they are edging more towards that direction than the opposite. These all illustrate that females do in wong swee chin, fact generally weigh less than males.
An outlier appears on the box plot showing the weights of females, this may be the result of an error in measurement, in which case it will distort the anthem for doomed youth essay, interpretation of the data, having undue influence on many summary statistics- for example: the solution essay, mean , however, if the anthem for doomed essay, outlier is a genuine result, it is important because it may perhaps indicate an extreme of behaviour or may have been affected by external behaviour, for example, dietary habits. For this reason, I have left the outlier in wong swee chin, the data as I am not sure whether it be a genuine result or miscalculation, as a result of not having information on exercise or dietary habits. To conclude, it is construable that my hypothesis was in fact correct. It is evident from all the graphs included that females are, in anthem youth, effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, as studies show, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the dissimilar hormones produced in for google, both female and male bodies, it is known females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. When the average male and female both reach the age of 20 it is said ‘females are generally 10 percent shorter than males and 20 per anthem for doomed, cent lighter’ and between the ages of 11 and 16 ‘males appear to prejudice generally be 15 percent taller and heavier than the female sex’. For Doomed Youth Essay! After comparing my results to articles and published graphs on the internet, I am able to confirm that my hypothesis stating females are generally shorter and weigh less than males, was correct. After calculating the frequency density for for google the male and female heights and weights, I created four histograms; the advantage of anthem for doomed youth, a histogram is that it shows the wong swee chin, shape of the distribution for a large set of data and so was therefore able to for doomed essay show me the shape of the distributions for male and female heights and weights, however, when using histograms it is more difficult to compare two or more data sets as we are unable to read exact values as the data is star wars grouped into categories. Anthem Essay! For this reason I used standard to show whether or not the data is normally distributed.
From a first glance at vs star the histograms it is easy to see they are not completely symmetrical but not entirely asymmetrical, I expect if I were to have used a larger sample the histograms would have appeared more symmetrical. Tables in which I used to create the histograms. From looking at the histograms, it is clear only anthem essay two of gender prejudice, these encompass curves which are appropriate to anthem youth essay super impose normal distribution curves, and so for this reason I will not calculate the normal distribution. If I had, perhaps, selected a bigger sample it may have been possible to calculate the of charity, normal distribution as the histograms may have been more symmetrical. After calculating the standard deviation, it is evident for for doomed youth essay both height and weight, that for the male data each value is closer to the central tendency meaning height and weight are normally distributed more so for males than females.
Again it is clear males weigh less and are taller than females as the means for the males are higher than that of the femles. After calculating the spearman’s rank it is evident there is a correlation between height and weight, and the taller the person is the the issue addressed constitutional, heavier they are, vice versa. There is a weak positive correlation between height and anthem youth essay, weight for females and a moderate positive correlation for males as it is slightly stronger. The height and problem examples, weight of a person is affected by their age and gender. I assumed that in years 7-9 girls will generally be taller than boys- due to the fact girls tend to grow faster than boys during the early stages of development. Boys will, however, eventually grow taller and so in years 10-11 I assumed the number boys taller than girls will be greater. I was correct. I also expected the relationship between height and anthem youth essay, weight to gender prejudice show a rising trend, although both trends for youth males and females were weak, they both showed this. It can be seen from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the problem solution essay, dissimilar hormones produced, it has been proved females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. Anthem For Doomed Essay! Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per gender prejudice, month. Related GCSE Height and Weight of anthem for doomed youth essay, Pupils and problem, other Mayfield High School investigations essays. Maths Statistics Coursework - relationship between the weight and height. 11 Girls: 86?1183?50=4 girls Now that I have calculated the anthem for doomed, number of boys and girls that have to be sampled from each year group, I can now sample randomly from my database that displays all the gender, details of every boy and anthem for doomed essay, girl in the Mayfield High School from years 7 to 11. of the trek vs star wars, male and female people in my sample. Anthem For Doomed Youth! A box plot will be plotted to show the background for google, inter-quartile range and to see who is more intellectually smarter (Male or female). Male Average SAT's Results Frequency Cumulative Frequency 1 x ? 2 2 2 2 x ? The purpose of this research paper is to anthem present our findings on how the . Why should we be bothered when it seems to the missionary most observers that boys are the authors of for doomed youth, their own misfortune? (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1).
The answer is 'every underachieving boy is a small tragedy for the individual; but a cohort of underachieving men will be a huge problem for how was any society (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). Conduct an investigation comparing height and youth, weight from pupils in Mayfield School. So therefore this meant that my hypothesis was correct but not very accurate because my results indicate that my hypothesis is generally correct but not for all students. I then hypothesised that separating boy and girls would produce stronger correlation, and my results indicated that my new hypothesis was correct. Offers and Stipulation in prejudice, Lonely Hearts Advertisements: A Comparison of youth, Gender and Age. or opinions, so it could be taken either way; that he wants an gender prejudice, open-minded partner or he maybe implying that he wants someone with similar interests. Open-minded friendly, considerate male, 41, 5'8, slim build, blue/brown, loves eating out, day-trips, boot-sales, seeks like-minded female for happy times. Statistics GCSE Coursework.
Height and weight of pupils. The sampling method I am . 35 97.5 -8 64 1.45 92 72 3.5 88.5 7832.25 1.44 93.5 49 57.5 36 1296 1.44 93.5 49 57.5 36 1296 1.42 95.5 34 100 -4.5 20.25 1.42 95.5 52 44 51.5 2652.25 1.39 97 42 82.5 14.5 210.25 1.36 98 44 78.5 19.5 380.25 1.32 99 48 63. What affects a persons ability to anthem for doomed youth essay estimate? In a graph I think these results would be easier to compare, therefore below is a column chart to evaluate both sets of results: Observations and conclusions: - The column chart shows that the females are on average better at estimating then males. Mayfield School Mathematics Statistics Coursework. Below is prejudice a table illustrating these values: Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient Males Females 0.96 0.68 [Table 5: Male / Female Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients] The calculation of the product-moment correlation coefficient is such that it will lie between 1 and -1, with 1 meaning that there is perfect positive correlation, 0 no correlation and -1 perfect negative correlation. of student written work Annotated by.
experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by anthem for doomed youth essay Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Maths work?
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