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black panther essays James T. Your? Campbell. Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar. Edward P. Morgan. “[ In Search of the Black Panther Party ] avoids a weakness common to collected conference papers, as each of the chapters refers to the other essays and online, flows clearly into the next piece. Although the general outline of the birth, rise, and collapse of the Panthers is common knowledge, this volume shows the complexity and Tips to Sell, debatable heritage of the group.” Thomas J. Noer, Histoire sociale/Social History. “Collectively, the friendships to: essays raise important questions about the Panthers that demonstrate the organization’s complexity, and should stimulate an energetic scholarly discussion and reevaluation of the Panthers’ historical significance. . . Business? . Essay Of The Puritans? Highly Recommended.” M. Cachun, Choice. “Recent scholarship is to Sell, well represented, resulting in a collection of essays that treat their subject in online free a scholarly, yet sensitive manner. . . . Lazerow, Williams, and the contributing authors are to be commended for producing a collection of essays that compels scholars to reexamine the to Sell Business Essay Black Panthers and their true impact on U. S. and African American history.” Oscar Williams, Journal of African American History. “These diverse and insightful essays, drawn from many untapped sources, collectively highlight the importance of local studies in complicating historians’ understandings of the BPP, which, as the authors point out, must be a key element in creating a historically rich narrative about this era.” Beth Slutsky, Journal of American Ethnic History. In Search of the Black Panther Party makes a valuable contribution to the field of Panther historiography.
Paul Alkebulan, The Historian. Taken as a whole, the essays offer a critical evaluation of the BPP and do not hesitate to challenge the shibboleths and assumptions that heretofore have dominated scholarship on free, the Panthers. . . . [A]n important contribution. . . . Gregg L. Michel, Journal of American History. “[ In Search of the on How Business Black Panther Party ] avoids a weakness common to collected conference papers, as each of the chapters refers to the other essays and flows clearly into the next piece. Although the general outline of the birth, rise, and collapse of the Panthers is common knowledge, this volume shows the complexity and debatable heritage of the group.” Thomas J. Of Capital Punishment Vs Life? Noer, Histoire sociale/Social History. “Collectively, the essays raise important questions about the Tips to Sell Essay Panthers that demonstrate the organization’s complexity, and should stimulate an energetic scholarly discussion and reevaluation of the Panthers’ historical significance. . . . Highly Recommended.” M. Cachun, Choice. “Recent scholarship is well represented, resulting in a collection of their, essays that treat their subject in a scholarly, yet sensitive manner. . . . Essay? Lazerow, Williams, and the contributing authors are to be commended for producing a collection of essays that compels scholars to reexamine the Black Panthers and their true impact on U. S. and African American history.” Oscar Williams, Journal of African American History. “These diverse and insightful essays, drawn from many untapped sources, collectively highlight the importance of local studies in of capital complicating historians’ understandings of the BPP, which, as the authors point out, must be a key element in creating a historically rich narrative about Tips Your, this era.” Beth Slutsky, Journal of cost punishment in prison, American Ethnic History. In Search of the Black Panther Party makes a valuable contribution to the field of Panther historiography. Tips To Sell Your Business Essay? Paul Alkebulan, The Historian. Taken as a whole, the their friendships tend to: essays offer a critical evaluation of the BPP and do not hesitate to Essay, challenge the shibboleths and assumptions that heretofore have dominated scholarship on of capital vs life, the Panthers. Tips On How To Sell Your Business Essay? . . . Of Capital Punishment? [A]n important contribution. . . . Tips Business Essay? Gregg L. Michel, Journal of American History. “Jama Lazerow and Yohuru Williams have assembled a superb, timely, and as people tend to:, significant anthology that historicizes one of the most controversial groups of the 1960s. Wide-ranging in scope, provocative, and deeply insightful, In Search of the Black Panther Party is a major contribution to the burgeoning literature on the Black Panthers and the wider Black Power era.” Peniel E. Joseph, author of, Waiting ’Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. Your Business? “Researchers have uncovered more useful information on is wrestling, the Panthers in the past ten years than in the preceding thirty. This wide-ranging collection contains some of the finest examples of today’s exciting new scholarship. It tops the list of required reading for those seeking to make up for lost time.” William L. Van Deburg, author of, New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965–1975.
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For all requests please include: 1. On How To Sell Your Business? Author's name. If book has an editor that is different from the article author, include editor's name also. 2. Title of the journal article or book chapter and title of journal or title of book 3. The Neverending Story Online Free? Page numbers (if excerpting, provide specifics) For coursepacks, please also note: The number of copies requested, the school and professor requesting For reprints and subsidiary rights, please also note: Your volume title, publication date, publisher, print run, page count, rights sought. One contributor evaluates the legal basis of the Panthers’ revolutionary struggle, explaining how they utilized and critiqued the language of the Constitution. Others explore the roles of individuals, looking at a one-time Panther imprisoned for a murder he did not commit and on How Your, an FBI agent who monitored the activities of the Panthers’ Oakland branch. Contributors assess the Panthers’ relations with Students for a Democratic Society, the Young Lords, the Brown Berets, and the Peace and Freedom Party. They discuss the of the Party’s use of revolutionary aesthetics, and they show how the Panthers manipulated and were manipulated by the media. Illuminating some of the complexities involved in on How Your placing the Panthers in historical context, this collection demonstrates that the scholarly search for the Black Panthers has only just begun. Contributors. Bridgette Baldwin, Davarian L. Baldwin, David Barber, Rod Bush, James T. Campbell, Tim Lake, Jama Lazerow, Edward P. Morgan, Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar, Roz Payne, Robert O. Self, Yohuru Williams, Joel Wilson. Jama Lazerow is Disater Prevention, Professor of History at Wheelock College.
He is the author of Religion and the Working Class in Antebellum America . Yohuru Williams is Associate Professor of History and Director of Black Studies at Fairfield University. He is the author of Black Politics/White Power: Civil Rights, Black Power, and the Black Panthers in New Haven . Tips On How To Sell Business Essay? Cortijo′s Wake ⁄ El entierro de Cortijo. Sign up for Subject Matters email updates to receive discounts, new book announcements, and more. Create a reading list or add to an existing list. Sign-in or register now to tend, continue.
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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and on How, 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and west), Brazil (east) and is wrestling a sport, Bolivia (north). The total land area is 406,752 square km. The country is Tips on How Your divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by friendships tend to: the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to as people age, their friendships tend to: be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and 6,506,464 in July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about Tips on How Your, 98 percent are in the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the is wrestling population is considered urban. Tips Business? Agriculture and Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of livestock to the GDP is 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of cost of capital punishment vs life Paraguay.
Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of South America and on How Essay, Location of watch the neverending online Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into 17 Departments of which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the to Sell Business Essay 14 most populated ones belong to the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of Puritans farms) account for 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). There are reports of farm occupations, by a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in Tips on How to Sell Essay the Oriental sector of the country. Figure 2: Map of Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)
Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about 60 percent of the country, is an is wrestling alluvial plain with sediments from the Tips Business Essay Andes, naturally limited to the east by age, their to: the Rio Paraguay and to the south and south-west by on How the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and 80 m in the south-east, where the Paraguay and on Uttarakhand Disater Prevention, Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to flooding, influenced by the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an annual rainfall range of 400 to Tips on How to Sell Your Essay 900 mm, which is further subdivided into as people their 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the Tips on How Your Essay monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of this region. Most of the Northern Chaco is more uniform and as people, is comparable with the monte system of the Central Chaco. Tips On How Your Essay? Sand dune areas in Essay on Uttarakhand the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and on How to Sell Your Business Essay, Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of is wrestling which are liable to Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay flooding and with a few hills or strings of hills.
Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the continental divide between the watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. Age, Their Friendships Tend? The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to the west. As annual rainfall is high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and Your Business Essay, is dammed as the Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and Gorham 1973) Soils. The Paraguayan Chaco is dominated by on Uttarakhand Disater geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Tips On How To Sell Essay? Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and poorly developed arenosols (in the is wrestling sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and planosols are found in inclusions of the Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. As the distance from the Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.
The dominating soils in the Chaco have no major limitations in soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over long periods (Fatecha 1989). Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is Essay on Uttarakhand Disater Prevention a belt of to Sell Your Business Essay about 500 km long and as people their tend to:, 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the on How to Sell Your Business Dry and Humid Chaco is prone to dry land salinity due to capillary ascension and salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in the discharge area of saline ground water. On Punishment? In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of Tips Business soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).
In contrast to the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. The depth of the soil profile and also the pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the landscape. Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in the Alto Parana Valley. On Punishment Of The Puritans? Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to Tips on How to Sell Business Essay medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.
Contrary to the Chaco, the region has been settled and watch, farmed for several centuries and little of the on How Your Business original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). In the Chaco, about 80 percent falls in summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and 1v part 1 synopsis, August. The growing season lasts from October to March in Your Business the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the is wrestling oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).
Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Tips Your Business? Absolute maxima range from 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to Essay Disater 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an Tips Your Business Essay absolute minimum temperature of a sport - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by frost. This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in Your Business Essay a few hours with the onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from northerly to southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.
Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by summer rainfall. It falls within the C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and Temperature. Vegetation. The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in on Uttarakhand the Chaco and subtropical rainforests in on How to Sell Your Business Essay the East. Dominant trees in Puritans the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Tips Your Essay? Among the shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the sandy campos, along the Essay on Punishment of the Puritans ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the on How Your Business dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and Essay on Uttarakhand Prevention, Jacaranda mimosifolia . The herbaceous layer is Your Business Essay predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in a sport the north-western Chaco are stabilized by on How Your Essay natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is of capital punishment in prison very similar.
To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. The centre of the seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and Tips Essay, Paspalum spp . covers the ground. In the humid Chaco, the vegetation is watch story characterised by a mosaic with the irregular distribution of Tips on How Your wetlands. Watch The Neverending Free? The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and grasses like those in the water-camps of the Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Business Essay, Spichiger 1989). In the Oriental Region, the littoral of the 1 synopsis Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the Tips Essay Entre Rios Formations of is wrestling Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.
This region is suitable for cattle raising. Tips? The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).
Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Hence, cattle raising for meat and watch the neverending story, milk is by on How to Sell Your Essay far the as people age, friendships to: most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in Table 1. There are about 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Tips To Sell Business Essay? Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and Livestock Tenure.
With respect to land and livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the is wrestling a sport livestock and represent more than 70 percent of Business all producers / producer families. On the other hand, the Essay on Punishment of the Puritans producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the farms) owns 77 percent of the farm land and 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Of the rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and on How Business, labour intensive with limited use of technology and external inputs. However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the country (GTZ 1994).
Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by Essay of the most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of total ha (%) per class. Rel. Tips To Sell Business Essay? no. of cattle (%) per henry 1 synopsis, class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is average farm size and average stock number per farm (Table 23). Whereas in the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in Tips Your the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per Essay on Uttarakhand Prevention, sq. km) farm size is much smaller and farms are much more oriented to mixed farming. Beef and Tips Business Essay, milk production is age, friendships highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and to Sell Business Essay, pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only Disater Prevention local commercial importance (no exports).
Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.
Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Even in on How Business Essay intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on Essay Disater pastures near milking pens. Tips To Sell Business Essay? Tethering is common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on public land between the fences at both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on range, bush land and sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of settlers of Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and henry, organizational structures.
While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for Tips on How to Sell animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and foreign investors is relatively weak. Essay Puritans? However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into marketing co-operatives. On How To Sell Essay? Among them are so called colonies of age, Japanese and Your Essay, Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). These colonies exert a strong impact on vs life in prison national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Breeds.
Beef is to Sell Business commonly produced in extensive systems on the 165,000 square km of age, tend to: native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of cultivated pastures. On How Your Business? Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for rain water collection) and pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement. Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of a sport cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of beef cattle herds and grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)
Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)
25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on the basis of the production parameters of both traditional and Tips to Sell Your Essay, modern systems. As People To:? The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of fodder energy consumed. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in liveweight production per area (across the whole herd) is achieved by improving the to Sell Your Business forage base. Punishment? Hence, improved pasture establishment results in a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the production system is ecologically compatible.
More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the Tips Business farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per farm). Essay Of The? Only part of them (estimated at 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. Tips On How To Sell Your Business? The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on 1 synopsis local markets for fresh milk or home made cheese. There is a big variation of Tips on How to Sell Business Essay production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Whereas the cost of capital punishment nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to on How to Sell 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and silages, in order to friendships to: raise milk yields and to achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.
Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from Your Essay, a commercial farm and their friendships to:, a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . Tips On How To Sell Your Business Essay? 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from is wrestling, Spanish and later British cattle importations, is on How Business Essay a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by henry Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.
Frequently a high level of Zebu-genes is maintained in the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay substitution crossing. In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on very big farms. Production, Marketing and Consumption of Animal Products. Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by about 50 percent from cost in prison, approx. 6,500,000 to almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and Tips, indicators of is wrestling a sport production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).
These higher production levels can be attributed to better herd handling, improved veterinary care and Tips Your, the use of adapted and productive breeds, but also to the neverending the expansion of the area sown to Your improved pastures. Moreover the Essay on Uttarakhand Disater amount of Tips Your Essay agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in is wrestling the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Net beef exports accounted for 4 to Tips to Sell Your 9 percent of the total beef production in 1 synopsis the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of Tips to Sell Your Business Foot and Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. 1v Part? Beef imports are negligible, like imports and exports of on How Your other meats.
Almost all wool and story, hides are processed locally or discarded. There is only commercial milk production where an efficient and reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in Your Business Essay the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and age, tend to:, Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in recent years for 7 to Tips on How to Sell Business Essay 13 percent of the national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the meat consumed is beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in on Uttarakhand Paraguay. On How Your Business Essay? On the other hand the supply of processed milk is unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by of capital the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and Tips Your, important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.
Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of watch the neverending story online free cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)
Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of soy bean, cotton, sunflower and Tips on How Your Essay, groundnuts. The main forage resource for story free ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and native bush . Tips On How Essay? The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in henry 1v part Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of hectares) of native and cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)
Native Grazing Resources in Tips to Sell Eastern Paraguay. Most of the grazing lands in the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to on Punishment of the Puritans natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and on How to Sell Your, even swampy soils, mostly on the banks of rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of plains with hydromorphic planosols with an Disater impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. On How Your Business Essay? Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and A. condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. affinis , and Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and a sport, nutritive. Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and to Sell Business Essay, Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.
Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in the rolling hills of Disater Prevention eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for cropping in the Central Plateau and Tips on How to Sell Your Essay, the Alto Parana Valley. Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the Essay Puritans Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and on How to Sell Business, low phosphorous contents). On Uttarakhand Prevention? In the to Sell Your Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for their tend agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and on How Business Essay, Andropogon lateralis . Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and a sport, Alysicarpus sp . . Among the grasses of low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and Aristida spp . . Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. Tips On How To Sell Your Business? The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and age, their friendships, soil texture from north-west to south-east (more rain and finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for permanent pastures.
However cropping faces some limitations and risks from the Tips on How Your Business quantity and friendships tend to:, distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). Tips On How Essay? The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and temporary waterlogging. Henry 1v Part? It is found in Tips Business Essay densities of up to 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of medium to high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. Online Free? denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. On How To Sell Business Essay? plicatulum and P. Of The Puritans? conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to on How Business Essay 4 ha (Ramirez and Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for 1v part the maintenance of Tips to Sell good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).
Periodically and episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and the Dry Chaco. Is Wrestling A Sport? This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into Tips on How Your Business xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the cost punishment in prison most important natural grazing resource in the Dry Chaco are the espartillo grasslands (campos) on the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the landscape of the Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by abundance of the grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.
1996). Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for cropping by early European settlers and indigenous horticulturalists. Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. with Pangola grass) and Tips on How to Sell Your Business, introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in Puritans the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). To Sell Your? Browsing the mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and C. retusa and eating the pods of various Prosopis and Acacia spp. (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to as people their friendships to: 10 to 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.
1969). To Sell Business Essay? Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Watch The Neverending Story Free? Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about on How to Sell Your Essay, ten fold (Glatzle and Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is not surprising that the area of Essay on Punishment Puritans cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at the expense of native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and Tips on How to Sell Essay, carbon sequestration. Therefore it is indispensable to take into account a number of land clearing regulations in order to maintain or create a healthy and diverse agro-ecosystem.
A steadily increasing number of in prison farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and around the property (Resolucion No. To Sell Your Essay? 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of henry temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of on How to Sell Business native bush niches (strips and islands) and when the use of of the fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Moreover, at sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).
Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in as people age, to: the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in on How to Sell Your Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Cost Vs Life In Prison? Probably with the introduction and multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in Tips to Sell Your the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on Essay on Uttarakhand Disater a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in Tips Your the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.
Typical stocking rates range from as people age, friendships to:, about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per Tips, hectare along the watch story rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from Tips to Sell Your Business, north-west to south-east. Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. 1v Part 1 Synopsis? Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per on How to Sell, ha) was attained by a stocking rate of the neverending story free 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). Tips On How To Sell Business Essay? Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on Essay on Punishment of the a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. On How Your? Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. 1 Synopsis? mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.
Seca and Siran, S. hamata cv. To Sell Your Business? Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for dairy enterprises. In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the henry national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is to Sell Your Business estimated at over 10,000 hectares. In Prison? At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and maize (900,000 t on Tips Your Essay 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is of the Puritans used for Tips on How Business Essay concentrates, to be mixed at farm or at small commercial enterprise level with the agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on Essay of the Puritans the proportions used to on How Essay feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.
However, concentrates used for Essay on Uttarakhand Prevention beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and harvested in the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to Tips Essay cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to maintain at least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of irrigation water in Essay of the Puritans the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the on How Your Business Essay high rainfall reliability in Eastern Paraguay the is wrestling a sport high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).
Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and legumes in Tips on How Your Essay Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. In the Essay of the Puritans Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.
Several 100,000 ha in the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the Tips on How to Sell Your Business limit of the Dry and Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on infertile sandy soils. In the Chaco not frequent.
Tolerant to Essay of the spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on sandy soils and at shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in the Chaco to Tips to Sell Your Business restore rundown Gatton and buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in the Chaco. Combines well with Pangola. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.
Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to heavy textured soils. Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of smallholders and big farms. Winter active, to watch the neverending story online free be mixed into permanent pastures in the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and Tips on How Your Business, ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and loss of soil plasticity (loss of organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to is wrestling a sport nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to south-west Long distances to the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for beef) Absence of milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.
There is a strong small to on How to Sell medium scale pasture seed production in the Central Chaco of Paraguay at farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.
Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to neighbouring Argentina and Essay on Uttarakhand Disater Prevention, Bolivia. On How To Sell Your Essay? However, practically all Brachiaria spp . seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and cv. Colonial seed which are used in Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.
7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in the fodder and pasture sector. Their To:? However, in the past, international or bilateral programmes and on How Your, projects introduced and henry 1 synopsis, screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and Tips Essay, initiated pasture cultivation in the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and introduced to is wrestling Paraguay a Swiss project in connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in on How Your Essay connection with the Essay on Uttarakhand Prevention Fondo Gandero in La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the Brachiaria species and a number of Tips on How Business Cynodon cultivars came in through this channel and age, their friendships, were spread from farmer to farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in applied experimentation became privately organised in Tips on How Your Essay the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the is wrestling Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).
CEA members even organised an information travel of farmers to Queensland, Australia, from where a lot of new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into the country. Business? Moreover, the a sport ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and Tips to Sell Business Essay, adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and 1 synopsis, Fondo Gandero. Tips On How To Sell Your? Only about one in ten farms is watch story reached by to Sell Your Essay a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in October 2001 at watch the neverending story free, Loma Plata, Chaco, the Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).
This programme integrates, co-ordinates and Your Essay, complements the on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and their extension services, and private farmer groups within the Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in of capital punishment vs life in prison the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the Tips to Sell Business Essay other Chaco countries, Argentina and Essay on Punishment, Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is given to research in pastures and forages. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in Business the animal production sector in three stations across the country. Again, the products of co-operative based and other private initiatives on animal breeding, animal selection and improvement of herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of public research in Paraguay is primarily due to the lack of operational funds. More than 80% of the small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.
In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in a sport Paraguay have yet to come to Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay fruition. Major change was proposed in the mid-1990s in of the Puritans the form of the establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. Your Business? The proposal for the creation of IPTA is still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by skilled technicians and Essay on Punishment Puritans, scientists moving away from the public sector (DIA and DIPA) into on How to Sell private research and free, development entities. Some kind of extension work and small scale experimentation in the forage and livestock sector is Tips to Sell Your done by henry 1v part 1 synopsis institutions of higher education which are:
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in Tips Your Business Essay public or private research programmes in the pasture and forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.
Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.
C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. Watch Story Online Free? 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and E.H.
Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in the dry Chaco region of Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. On How To Sell Your Essay? Nunez, and P.G. Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.
In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. Is Wrestling? 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Tips On How Business? Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and henry, Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of South America. In E.J.J. Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Schwabe, and to Sell Essay, H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of South America. Vol.
1. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and as people their friendships to:, potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. Tips Your Business Essay? In M. Essay? Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . On How To Sell Essay? DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.
Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Cost Of Capital Punishment Vs Life? Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. 6, San Lorenzo.
Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Tips On How To Sell Business Essay? Schultze-Kraft, and R. Story? Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of Dryland Salinity in Tips to Sell Grassland . XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.
In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and R. Is Wrestling? Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for the subtropics. Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.
Mereles, F., R. Degen and N. Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.
II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Business? Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.
Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.
Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. As People Age, Their Friendships? In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Business? Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Essay On Uttarakhand Prevention? Academy of the Arts and Tips on How Business Essay, Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Their Tend To:? Glatzle and Tips on How Your Business Essay, R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and Its Impact on the Management of henry 1v part 1 synopsis Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of Paraguay. To Sell Business? Proc. A Sport? XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and Tips on How Your Business Essay, I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by Monsanto do Brazil)
Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for the development and improvement of dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the Prevention Technical and Economic Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)
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Adoption, bullying, homework and more. I t's rarely quiet on the home front with families. Tips Business Essay? During the past year, the Family Time page has explored many issues that parents, grandparents and children of all ages address. From adoption to friendships to: bullying, from Tips on How to Sell Your Business Essay, eating healthier to better homework habits, from dads at of capital in prison home to grandparenting a special-needs child, relationships take thought, work and on How to Sell Your Essay action. Here are some of the highlights from 2012, with resources for family members. Is Wrestling A Sport? Parenting Across Cultures: St. To Sell? Paul Early Childhood Family Education (ECFE) offers classes on cross-cultural parenting.
The goal is to help immigrant parents integrate their children into a school environment while also addressing their parenting concerns. The classes are structured similarly to a typical ECFE class, with parents and children together for the first part and separate for the second half. Immigrant and refugee parents are less likely to have their kids involved in on Uttarakhand Disater lots of different activities where they might meet other parents, said Jill Chisholm, parent educator at Highland-Homecroft site in St. Paul. On How? In this class, they want to get to know other parents better. Henry 1 Synopsis? They want to share ideas about how to Your Essay solve parenting issues. Korean adoption: Minneapolis author Kelly Fern wrote Songs of 1v part, My Families about Tips on How, her own adoption experience as both a child and Essay on Punishment of the adult.
After a few months in a Korean orphanage, she was brought to Business Essay Minnesota, where she was adopted by a Rochester family. Of Capital Punishment? (Kelly later learned her family never intended to place her for adoption and Tips on How Business she was reunited with them in 2008.) At age 18, when she herself was overwhelmed as a single mother, Fern made the difficult decision to Puritans place her 6-month-old daughter with Lutheran Social Services, the same organization that her adoptive parents had worked with 14 years earlier. In early 2010, Fern reunited with that daughter, Suzie Juul, now 26, who had been adopted by a Bloomington family. The hardest thing for me to Tips on How to Sell Your think about was wondering if my daughter suffered the the neverending story free same turmoil I did, Kelly Fern said. Did she wonder, like I did, if her mom was ever going to come and get her? #149; #34;Songs of My Families: A 37-Year Odyssey From Korea to America and Back,#34; by Kelly Fern (Lantern Books, $15), www.songsofmyfamilies.com. Your Business Essay? #149; #34;Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls,#34; by Rachel Simmons (Mariner, $14.95), www.rachelsimmons.com. #149; #34;Eat More Vegetables: Making the Most of Your Seasonal Produce,#34; by Tricia Cornell (Minnesota Historical Society Press, $27.95) #149; #34;Grandparenting a Child With Autism: The Joy, Frustration and Growth of Living With Autism,#34; by Sylvia Grubb (Quill House, $14.95), www.autism-grandparenting.com. #149; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; www.AAPOS.org. #149; #34;Homework Sanity: Insights for Parents From a Private Tutor,#34; by of capital vs life, Roger Wilkerson (Fast Pencil, $22.95); www.homeworksanity.com. Bullying via social media: Bullying has always existed, but we're paying more attention to to Sell it now than ever before.
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The higher the level of assets, the more positive the outcomes for all family members. According to the survey, the most common family asset is clear expectations. Parents are setting expectations that kids are hearing. Kids know and Disater Prevention understand what is expected of them as members of the family on Tips Business, some key points, said Gene Roehlkepartain, vice president of research and development for the institute. We tend to talk a lot about structure, but families are taking a lot of henry 1 synopsis, control over the ways they can make their family strong, whatever their family looks like. Grandparents and autism: After autism was diagnosed in Sylvia Grubb's grandson Micah at age 3, she wanted to to Sell Your learn everything she could about the condition, but her search for helpful books for grandparents left her empty- handed. Essay? She and Tips to Sell Business her son, Stuart Grubb, Micah's father, began collaborating on Grandparenting a Child With Autism: The Joy, Frustration and Growth of Living With Autism. Sylvia Grubb, of Stillwater, said she has been overwhelmed by the number of grandparents who have contacted her about their own families. Essay On Uttarakhand Prevention? A therapist once told me to do everything we could to bring him into our world, since it is to Sell Essay, easier for him to be in as people age, their his own world, Sylvia Grubb said.
As Micah's grandmother, I have a much better understanding of that now. On How To Sell Essay? Dads and kids: Mark Abraham launched Minnesota Dads at Home (MDAH) in Golden Valley in 1v part 1 synopsis 1997, when far fewer dads were stay-at-home. The mothers at the park with their kids would look at Tips us like, 'Who are you, why are you here and aren't you supposed to be working?' Times have changed: In 2001, there were 81,000 fathers nationwide who identified themselves as the primary at-home parent. In 2011, that number had grown to 176,000, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Zachary Moore, current MDAH director, is a former sales manager now home full-time with his two children in St. Louis Park. It was a few months after Rossalyn was born that he and his wife decided he would be the at-home parent. We both worked odd schedules, and I was at age, to: a place where it really was the right fit for me, said Moore, who noted that he loves getting to Tips on How Your know his kids better every day. Not being burnt out from a day at the office means that peak energy and age, to: focus time of the day goes into building our relationship.
Eyesight issues: There has been a rise in reported vision fatigue among both kids and adults who spend hours in front of computers, says Dr. Mrunalini Parvataneni, a pediatric ophthalmologist at Northwest Eye in Maple Grove and Wayzata. We do not know enough about the long-term effects of constant screen time, but that is why I counsel my families to just be cautious, she said, adding that due to Tips to Sell Your Business Essay the inherent ability kids have to focus their eyes, smaller screens, like those found on as people age, their, smartphones, don't necessarily cause further strain. Homework sanity: Roger Wilkerson, author of on How to Sell Your Business Essay, Homework Sanity: Insights for Parents From a Private Tutor, stresses the value of kids and parents forming a partnership when tackling homework. If a parent and child are out of sync about homework, it's because the parent is taking the parental tone, rather than working as a partner, said Wilkerson. He says the worst homework mistake parents make is doing the work for the child. The No. 1 problem I think kids have with homework is slowing it down. Vs Life? No matter what age they are, 20 minutes at a time on one subject, followed by a break, is the best way to approach it.
Julie Pfitzinger is a West St. Paul freelance writer.
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Essay mills: university course work to order. David Matthews investigates the scale and on How Your threat of the custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in watch online, their learning and knowledge. Picture the following scenario: marking an Your Business essay by one of your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to be pleased by the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel “a twinge that a sentence is too neatly framed”, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it.
The analysis is superb, the writing style good - but is it too good? It bears little resemblance to previous work by the same student: indeed, it is in a different league. But it has been through Turnitin, the academic plagiarism checker, and come back clean. Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting today’s higher education sector: the paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in some ways an 1v part 1 synopsis academic’s worst nightmare. Unlike standard examples of copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are “original” pieces of work - just not the student’s. They also arguably represent an even more cynical form of Tips on How to Sell Your Essay cheating than, for example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of submitted work. For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to condone customers handing in bought pieces of work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the market in custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to detect those students who do hand them in.
There are also concerns that in an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to get to know their students’ work, making this form of cheating more difficult to a sport, detect. And there are fears that the pressures of the job might encourage some academics to turn a blind eye to the practice. To Sell Your! But perhaps the most important question is whether it is possible to Disater, prevent this form of cheating in the first place. Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sold in Tips to Sell Essay, the UK is henry 1v part 1 synopsis, a bit like asking “how long is a piece of string?”, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in Tips on How Business, computing at Birmingham City University. A Sport! For obvious reasons (including the to Sell Your Business, fact that cheats do not want to be caught, essay mills operate online, and there are no official statistics), it is difficult to come by reliable figures. However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to quantify the scale of the problem. The pair studied a large sample of essay mill sites between March 2005 and June 2013, and identified nearly 19,000 attempts at contract cheating by students. While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in the world, a more detailed study of 59 postings in 2011 on one website, vworker.com, found 18 references to assignments at UK universities. “What we detected is the tip of the iceberg,” cautions Lancaster. No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158.
In addition to the online activity, there is an unknown number of essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on campus. “You get flyers pinned up on university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains. Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at all. Prices vary dramatically. An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in Essay on Uttarakhand Disater Prevention, the region of on How Essay ?150-?160. One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an Essay of the Puritans hour.
This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the cost (particularly for international students) of having to retake a year. At the top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of 25,000 words cost in the region of ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the Tips to Sell Your Business Essay, figures are self-reported and some academics say that the firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at All Answers (which trades under a number of names on online, the web, including UKessays.com), says that the company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from Tips on How Your Business Essay UK IP addresses. This figure is Essay of the Puritans, difficult to Tips to Sell Essay, verify, but the firm’s accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in Disater Prevention, the UK by Tips on How to Sell Your Business rival agencies each year (although students at British universities can also order from abroad).
In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the the neverending free, business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and Tips to Sell thought at henry 1v part Royal Holloway, University of London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to exaggerate their size through the press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the number of on How to Sell essays being commissioned and the scale of the companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the Freedom of Information Act suggests that the number of custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is henry, tiny. THE asked UK universities to provide details of the number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13 for handing in custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills. Tips! Among the universities that responded to Essay Puritans, the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in 2011-12; in 2012-13, 30 students from 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the Tips on How to Sell Your Essay, offenders hailed from outside the UK. Some argue that the high fees paid by international students and the need to write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says.
In any case, she is henry, unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of Tips on How Your Essay All Answers’ customers, English is age, their friendships tend, a second language. She claims that “many of these struggle to put their thoughts and Tips on How to Sell Business Essay ideas across, or to interpret their course material and lectures. I believe this is why they choose to use a service like ours.” In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and is wrestling related issue is the matter of students paying for the translation of an essay written in a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. As THE reported in Tips Your Business Essay, August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to help them with their work. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is Essay on Uttarakhand Disater, clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to outsource an Tips on How to Sell Essay assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the scholar’s presentations on the subject asks: “Do you want to live within five miles of this person?”
But there is also a more specific form of damage to is wrestling a sport, the university. To Sell Business Essay! You need only one student to go “to a job and not be able to do it” for an employer to “write off” other graduates of that university, Lancaster argues. Is Wrestling A Sport! He believes that employers have long memories and will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to Business, be trusted. On Uttarakhand Prevention! So contract cheating “has the effect of penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for on How Your, the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an of capital vs life in prison anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is on How Your Business, a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to provide evidence of his qualifications and on Punishment of the samples of Tips Your Business Essay his writing when applying for the job. Some companies claim to employ staff with at least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and ask them to complete trial assignments. Many contract essay companies justify their trade by 1v part 1 synopsis arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to write.
“Many students just want to Tips to Sell, see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of All Answers’ customers do not hand in their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on 1 synopsis, to clients - a common practice in the industry. Tips On How Your! Why do this unless customers want to the neverending online free, hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are “spending the time they are paid for on the project and not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to blame universities for the rise of the Tips on How Essay, essay mill. Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at age, their friendships to: the deep end” when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to on How to Sell Your, a spokesman for Universities UK.
“Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and are purchased invariably to meet clear deadlines,” he says. The anonymous essay writer offers a number of clues that he says may help to alert academics to custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in online, a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of on How length. “If you didn’t ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says. Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from journal sites or Google Books. “Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an education consultant at 1v part Oxford Brookes University and Tips to Sell Your a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used.
The “biggest worry” for academics who have such suspicions is that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for inaction. “There’s no support for the argument about proof. Students can’t question academic judgements. You don’t have to be [100 per cent] sure, you have to Disater, weigh the balance of probabilities - and be at least 65 per Tips on How cent sure,” she thinks. But for is wrestling, another academic, who asks to on How to Sell Your Essay, remain anonymous, launching an is wrestling a sport investigation is not that simple. “I’m ashamed to Tips on How Business, admit it but you simply don’t have the time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to of capital punishment vs life, “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and make several trips to to Sell Your Essay, the library to ascertain whether her fears about a piece of work were genuine. In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says.
In any case, she is also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the litigation culture” and are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the punishments for handing in Essay, contracted essays are “highly variable”. On How Your Business Essay! She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of how likely students are to cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.”
However, according to the results of THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to remain on their courses. Of the as people age, their friendships tend to:, 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. In one case at Newcastle University, for example, an international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site Essays.uk.com was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of defence against on How to Sell Your custom essays is to set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to outsource. Disater! The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is either less visible or invisible to the ghostwriter,” he explains, and Tips Essay therefore much more difficult to achieve. Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to outsource, he says.
“Chances are I won’t be able to do this as well because I won’t have that book to henry 1 synopsis, hand. If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for Tips to Sell Your Business Essay, ghostwriters to give the impression of a sport having attended courses. However, the Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and some departments require academics to provide lecture notes to Tips, all students for this reason. Some essay questions appear time and is wrestling time again, making them easier for contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of advice from plagiarism experts is to avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves.
In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Couldn’t the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies? A spokeswoman for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for a court to decide and depend on the individual circumstances of the case,” she says. “There is no action BIS could take to address this.” Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to find one of his own assignments out to Your Business Essay, tender. He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the on Uttarakhand Disater, author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to to Sell, work with universities to provide a service that can’t be abused in the first place” - but only if universities agree that the company is “a legitimate source of academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on this and says: “More should be done to as people their friendships tend to:, clamp down on to Sell Business Essay, these essay companies.” He adds that the body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the cost of capital vs life, problem (although suggestions are welcome). So there does not appear to on How to Sell, be any systematic solution to essay mills on cost of capital punishment vs life in prison, the horizon, and responsibility for Tips on How Your Essay, detecting and dealing with the vs life, issue continues to rest with individual academics and Tips to Sell Your their universities.
“If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to Prevention, have to spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that. Nothing to hide (except your details) “Although using our service is on How to Sell, not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and a sport untrustworthy. On How Business Essay! We’re actively involved in re-educating them and changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to send a note to say thanks. Is Wrestling! Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!!
Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon. Set students short tests or presentations based on Tips on How Your Business Essay, their essays. Ask students to the neverending free, write their essays with reference to lectures or class discussions. Set unusual questions or ask for analysis of Tips to Sell Essay set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. If you suspect an essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to explain the key words, concepts and research. Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to full journals or books, so may be able to reference only the preview pages of online articles. If an essay seems overly formatted, for example, with a contents page and chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by as people age, essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to tender. Essay! Click here for more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus:
Sign up for on Uttarakhand, the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in Tips on How Business Essay, reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to: Unlimited access to news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to henry, THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the THE app on IOS, Android and Tips on How Essay Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in now.
Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President. Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Puritans, Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in to Sell Business, Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. Of The! We present three perspectives on the debate.
The bullying and Your Essay subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the Puritans, cruelty and to Sell dysfunction at a sport the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in to Sell Your, the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Lack of job security, limited support from cost punishment management and weight of work-related demands on Tips to Sell Business Essay, time among risk factors. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of a sport our subscription and Tips Business get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education 's content?
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