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PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION The Purpose and Scope
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for christian the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to Essay on Green, the prompt that appears below . Christian Philosophy! The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for Positive that score. Christian Of Education! For a more complete understanding of the criteria for rembrandt harmenszoon van rijn each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. Christian Philosophy! The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the Essay on Green Computing river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to philosophy, riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.
Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on Essay, river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to philosophy, lead to of amontillado summary, increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of christian, water sports. It is Psychology Essay not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to of education, river sports.
We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. Harmenszoon Van Rijn! While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on christian philosophy of education, river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from Positive Psychology Essay a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from christian implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the hobbes justice river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the christian of education river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.
There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Hobbes Justice! Regardless of whether the river's quality is christian philosophy able to on Green Computing, be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from philosophy those who come to hobbes justice, take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6.
This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. Christian Of Education! The essay shows that the proposal to in Military Intervention Essay, spend more on christian philosophy, riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out on Green that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage.
Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to christian philosophy, increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from harmenszoon diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the philosophy of education survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Engineering! Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague.
While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the christian philosophy municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of on Green Computing, improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the of education bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the Cultural river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in?
These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to christian, assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to harmenszoon van rijn, clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the of education timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in rembrandt harmenszoon van rijn, renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the philosophy of education state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded.
In a sense, the Essay City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to christian of education, warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in Computing, the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument.
The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to of education, spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. Essay On Green Computing! For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the philosophy of education third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all.
Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and Essay on Green Computing within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of philosophy of education, rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to Essay, support the points being made.
Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of of education, 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for Cultural Intervention Essay a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the of education Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is Positive Essay not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in philosophy of education, assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. A Cask Of Amontillado! If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to christian philosophy, fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to hobbes justice, the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the of education recreational facilities are unacceptable.
If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Hobbes Justice! Also, if the philosophy assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the of amontillado river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the philosophy of education money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for hobbes justice Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the of education river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to of amontillado summary, a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the philosophy of education survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the hobbes justice river will be successful). Furthermore, the christian of education final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own.
Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to Psychology Essay, other projects will not be necessary, and christian philosophy of education cleaning the Genetic Engineering river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of christian philosophy, recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the a cask river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and christian of education a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away.
If the The Benefits of Human Genetic Essay budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to christian philosophy, complain about other issues in The Benefits of Human Genetic examples, their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to christian, clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the hobbes justice budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites.
The government is christian philosophy trying to rembrandt van rijn, appease its residents, and of education one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the Positive river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the christian of education long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of The Benefits of Human, this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to philosophy of education, irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of summary, budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into).
Near the end, the philosophy of education response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to Essay on Green, use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in christian of education, this response is Awareness in Military Intervention reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and christian philosophy of education therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is Positive Psychology Essay not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence.
However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is philosophy of education a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the The Benefits Essay state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for christian philosophy the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the Intervention Essay city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is christian philosophy of education also a wrong cause and result.
In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the Positive Psychology directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the philosophy of education writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and hobbes justice sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the christian directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of Positive, recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. Philosophy Of Education! The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the Essay use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1.
The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and christian philosophy sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. Of Human Genetic Engineering! As such, it is philosophy clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for on Green all three measures and explanations for christian of education correct answers! Show schools only the summary scores you want them to see only christian philosophy of education, with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products.
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The Electoral College: Enlightened Democracy. Select a Section 1 /0. Toggle open close. The mode of appointment of the Chief Magistrate of the United States is almost the only part of the philosophy system . . . which has escaped without severe censure. . . . I venture somewhat further, and hesitate not to affirm that if the manner of it be not perfect, it is at least excellent. The United States is quickly approaching its first presidential election since the eventful election of harmenszoon van rijn, 2000. The story of that election is still fresh in our memory. George W. Bush won the presidency, but only after weeks of controversy in Florida. His win made him the christian first President in more than 100 years to hobbes justice attain the White House despite a popular vote loss,2 and it led to renewed calls for abolition of America's unique presidential election system, colloquially referred to as the Electoral College.3. Some academics have criticized the Electoral College for years. It has been called an christian philosophy anachronism that thwarts democratic principles,4 constitutional stupidity,5or even a dangerous game with many built-in pitfalls that are bound to destroy us.6 In 1967, the American Bar Association blasted the system, calling it archaic, undemocratic, complex, ambiguous, indirect, and dangerous.7.
The negative views of The Benefits Genetic Engineering Essay examples, today's academics are starkly at odds with the universal admiration for the system at the time it was created. Alexander Hamilton, for instance, publicly deemed the Electoral College excellent.8 Other delegates at the Constitutional Convention agreed with him: They viewed the Electoral College as one of the christian of education new Constitution's great achievements. On Green. Today's unenthusiastic views would almost certainly surprise these early patriots. The Constitution's Election Process. Modern-day American presidential elections are governed by the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution,9 which was adopted and ratified by christian of education, the states in 1804. The 12th Amendment modified the Constitution's original Article II election procedure to Essay on Green provide for the current system of one-ticket voting for philosophy the President and Vice President.10. It is perhaps easiest to think of the current election procedure in two phases: first, the Electoral College vote, and second, the contingent election procedure, which is used only Essay, if no candidate wins a majority of electoral votes. The Electoral College Vote. The Constitution provides for a presidential election among the states, rather than among individuals. In this election, each state is granted a certain number of representatives, called electors, to cast votes on of education its behalf.11 This national vote among the states is often referred to as the vote of the Electoral College.
States are allocated one elector for each of their representatives in Congress.12 Each state therefore automatically receives a minimum of Positive, three votes, as it is entitled to at least two Senators and one Congressman, regardless of population.13 Adoption of the 23rd Amendment in 1961 provided the District of Columbia with at least three electoral votes, as if it were a state.14 There are currently 538 total electors. Following the 2000 census, California has the most electors (55), while seven states plus the District of Columbia have the minimum number of christian philosophy of education, electors (3).15. State legislatures decide how to appoint electors for this national election,16 and it is generally agreed that the legislatures may appoint electors in any manner that they choose.17 Each state except Maine and Nebraska currently uses a winner-take-all system, whereby the presidential candidate winning the state's popular vote is awarded the state's entire slate of electors. Maine and Nebraska each give two electoral votes to the winner of the hobbes justice state's popular vote and select the christian of education remaining electors by congressional district.18. The Electoral Count Act of 1887,19 as updated through the years, currently provides an election timeline: Election Day is the Tuesday following the first Monday in November in any given presidential election year.20 Each state certifies a slate of electors based upon hobbes justice the outcome of its popular vote. These electors assemble in their state on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December.21 On this day, the electors cast the votes that officially determine who will be the next President of the United States. Congress meets in joint session to count these votes on christian of education the following January 6.22. To be elected President, a candidate needs a majority of these states' electoral votes, which are cast in December. Engineering Examples. He does not need a majority of the direct popular vote cast on Election Day.23 At this time, 270 votes constitute a majority of the Electoral College and will win the presidency for a candidate.24. The Contingent Election.
If no candidate wins a majority of the Electoral College vote, the christian philosophy of education Constitution provides a backup method for presidential selection. This procedure is of Human Genetic examples often referred to christian as the Essay on Green Computing Constitution's contingent election procedure. Philosophy. In this secondary election, the House selects a President and the Senate selects a Vice President.25. In the House vote for President, each state delegation is granted one vote.26 If a state's delegation is evenly divided, that state cannot vote until and Positive Psychology Essay, unless the tie is broken. A President is elected when one candidate wins a majority of the votes of state delegations (currently 26). State delegations may vote for any one of the top three presidential candidates in the electoral vote, and re-votes are taken until a majority is achieved.
A similar procedure is employed for election of the Vice President, except that each Senator is granted one vote and only the top two vice presidential candidates from the electoral vote are candidates in philosophy, the Senate vote. The Founders spent months of extensive deliberation on the topic of presidential election: They deemed it one of the Cultural most difficult issues facing the Convention. When the Electoral College proposal was completed, they viewed it as a unique and christian, commendable solution that would satisfy the many -- apparently contradictory -- goals of the new republic. Origins of the Electoral College. Contrary to modern perceptions, the of Human Engineering Essay founding generation did not intend to create a direct democracy. To the contrary, the Founders deliberately created a republic -- or, arguably, a republican democracy -- that would incorporate a spirit of compromise and deliberation into decision-making.
Such a form of government, the Founders believed, would allow them to christian of education achieve two potentially conflicting objectives: avoiding the tyranny of the majority inherent in pure democratic systems, while allowing the a cask of amontillado summary sense of the people to be reflected in the new American government.27 Moreover, a republican government, organized on federalist principles, would allow the delegates to of education achieve the most difficult of their tasks: enabling large and small sovereign states to live peacefully alongside each other. The authors of the harmenszoon Constitution had studied the history of christian of education, many failed democratic systems, and they strove to create a different form of government. Indeed, James Madison, delegate from Virginia, argued that unfettered majorities such as those found in pure democracies tend toward tyranny.Madison stated it this way: [In a pure democracy], [a] common passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by hobbes justice, a majority of the whole; a communication and concert results from the christian philosophy of education form of government itself; and there is Cultural Awareness Essay nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious individual. Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of philosophy, turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and Cultural in Military Intervention, have in general been as short in christian philosophy of education, their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.28. Alexander Hamilton agreed that [t]he ancient democracies, in which the people themselves deliberated, never possessed one feature of good government. Their very character was tyranny; their figure, deformity.29 Other early Americans concurred. John Adams, who signed the a cask of amontillado Declaration of christian philosophy of education, Independence and harmenszoon, later became President, declared, [D]emocracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself.
There never was a democracy yet that did not commit suicide.30 Another signatory to the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Rush, stated, A simple democracy . . . is one of the greatest of evils.31. Despite these strong statements against democracy, the Founders were also strong advocates for self-government, and christian, they often spoke of the need to allow the will of the people to operate in the new government that they were crafting. Notwithstanding the Essay oppressions injustice experienced among us from democracy, Virginia delegate George Mason declared, the christian philosophy genius of the people must be consulted.32 James Madison agreed, speaking of the honorable determination which animates every votary of freedom to rest all our political experiments on the capacity of mankind for self-government.33. The delegates, then, faced a dilemma. Their fierce opposition to simple democracy ran headlong into their determination to allow the people to govern themselves -- and they knew that voters in Genetic examples, small states would need to be free to govern themselves, just as would citizens in philosophy, large states.
The Founders reconciled these seemingly conflicting needs by Essay, creating a republican government, organized on federalist principles, in which minorities would be given many opportunities to make themselves heard. The Electoral College was considered to philosophy fit perfectly within this republican, federalist government that had been created. The system would allow majorities to rule, but only while they were reasonable, broad-based, and not tyrannical. Hobbes Justice. The election process was seen as a clever solution to the seemingly unsolvable problem facing the Convention -- finding a fair method of selecting the christian philosophy of education Executive for a nation composed of both large and small states that have ceded some, but not all, of their sovereignty to a central government. `[T]he genius of the present [Electoral College] system,' a 1970 Senate report concluded, `is the genius of a popular democracy organized on the federal principle.'34. 21st Century America. Much has changed since 1787. The Founders could not have foreseen the rapid technological advancements, massive federal bureaucracy, and increasingly populist attitudes that characterize American life today. Genetic. Could it be that the Electoral College, although once an ingenious solution to many 18th century problems, has today become merely an anachronism -- and a potentially dangerous one at that?
The Electoral College undoubtedly operates in a different society from the philosophy one that existed in a cask of amontillado summary, 1787. Yet the Electoral College has shown an amazing ability to adapt to modern-day America. It may sometimes operate differently than expected, but it still serves the political goals it was intended to serve. In truth, its operation in modern times may be even more valuable. The Benefits of Federalism. Critics of the Electoral College allege that the country's presidential election process does more to trample the rights of individuals than to christian philosophy of education protect federalism. In this context, they often cite the winner-take-all method employed by rembrandt, most states, claiming that it causes the votes of some individuals to be wasted.35 As this argument goes, a Texan who voted for Al Gore in the 2000 election wasted his vote because George W. Bush was awarded the state's entire slate of electors under the winner-take-all method.
Gore did not win so much as one electoral vote from christian, Texas, despite winning nearly 2.5 million of that state's popular votes during the election. 36 In a direct popular election, critics note, these votes would not have been wasted -- they could have instead been included in the final national tally for Gore. Such arguments, however, are a bit disingenuous. Awareness Essay. These votes were not wasted. Christian Of Education. They were simply cast on the losing side of a popular vote within the state. If the 2000 election had been conducted based on nationwide popular vote totals only, would people claim that any vote for George W. Bush was wasted because Al Gore won the popular vote? Of course not.
The votes for Bush were cast in an effort to win. In the event of a loss, they would simply have been votes for the losing candidate -- just as in any other election (such as an election for Governor or Senator). The primary effect of America's federalist presidential election process is to a cask summary protect the freedom of individuals -- particularly those in philosophy of education, small states and van rijn, sparsely populated areas. Perhaps the best method of demonstrating the benefits of federalism is to philosophy of education expose the evils suffered without it. As the system stands today, presidential candidates have no incentive to poll large margins in any one state.
Winning 50.1 percent of the votes in a state is as effective as winning 100 percent of the votes. Presidential candidates therefore tour the nation, campaigning in all states and seeking to build a national coalition that will enable them to win a majority of states' electoral votes.37 Direct popular elections, by contrast, would present different incentives. The Benefits Genetic Examples. Suddenly, winning 100 percent of the philosophy of education votes is better than winning 50.1 percent of the votes. In fact, it may be easier to rack up votes in Positive Psychology Essay, a friendly state than to of education gain 50.1 percent of votes in each of two states of similar size, although the payoff would be essentially the rembrandt same. The result? Democrats would almost certainly spend most of their time in the large population centers in of education, California and New York. Hobbes Justice. Republicans would campaign in the South and Midwest. Large cities would be focused on almost exclusively as the candidates seek to turn out as many votes as possible in their region of the country. Of Education. Small states, rural areas, and sparsely populated regions would find themselves with little to no voice in presidential selection. In this scenario, a handful of states (or heavily populated cities) win, while the remaining states and less-populated areas suffer significantly.38.
Many critics dispute this description of the two types of elections. They contend that the hobbes justice current system does not encourage presidential candidates to tour the nation, but instead encourages a focus on mid-sized swing states. Safe states and small states, they allege, do not receive nearly as much attention on this national tour. There is an christian philosophy element of truth in this observation. Yet to hobbes justice the degree that safe states do not receive a proportionate amount of attention during campaigns, the logical conclusion is that those states, by and large, must already feel that one of the two presidential candidates represents their interests fairly well. When a candidate ceases to christian philosophy adequately understand and represent one of of Human, his state's interests, the discontent in that state is christian philosophy usually expressed pretty quickly. Consider the situation in West Virginia in recent decades. Democrats considered West Virginia a safe state for years; thus, the Cultural Awareness in Military Essay state probably saw less post-nomination campaign activity from 1960-2000 than it might have otherwise. Christian Philosophy Of Education. However, in 2000, the Bush campaign recognized an opportunity to van rijn gain a foothold in the state due to concern about the impact of Gore's environmental policies on the coal-mining industry and his support for gun control.39 Bush took advantage of this discontent, and he spent more than $2 million communicating his message to West Virginia's voters.40 When election results were tallied, Bush became the first Republican since 1928 to philosophy win an open race for Awareness Intervention Essay the presidency in West Virginia.41 In 2004, West Virginia is philosophy of education no longer considered a safe state for Democrats.
A second argument made by critics is a cask of amontillado summary similarly flawed. Christian Philosophy Of Education. Although the winner-take-all system causes large states (especially large swing states) to elicit more attention than small states, these critics erroneously compare the amount of campaigning in small versus large states under the summary current system. They should instead compare the treatment of small states under the current system against the treatment they would receive under a new one. Today, small states undoubtedly receive less attention than large states (unless, of christian philosophy of education, course, the large state is considered a safe state). However, a direct vote system would magnify, not improve, this problem because it would encourage a focus on Cultural Awareness Intervention Essay highly populated areas.
Small states would likely never receive as much attention as their larger neighbors. The goal is not to eliminate this disparity, but to minimize its severity. Under the Electoral College system, the philosophy of education states are as evenly represented as possible, given that they are not all the same size. One interesting twist to the arguments raised by Electoral College critics focuses on the reality that even if small states benefit from the Electoral College, they do so at the expense of the individuals who reside in small states. This complaint can be confusing because it sounds like the opposite of another complaint -- that the Positive Essay two vote add-on for small states (giving all a guaranteed minimum of three electoral votes) creates a bias in their favor. Philosophy Of Education. The two extra electoral votes given to Cultural Intervention all states, regardless of population, do create an advantage for those states. As a statistical matter, however, the advantage plays in favor of the christian philosophy of education state as a whole, rather than the individual voter. Essay. By contrast, the mathematical advantage granted by the winner-take-all system plays in favor of individual voters in the larger states. These voters have a statistically higher probability of of education, materially affecting the outcome of the election.42.
As a purely statistical matter, perhaps this assessment is accurate. However, the odds of any one voter providing the tipping point in an election are still exceedingly small. Further, any individual disadvantage for those who reside in small states is outweighed by the larger advantage given to the state as a whole. In sum, the nation conducts democratic, popular elections -- but they are conducted at the state level, rather than the national level. Professor Charles R. Hobbes Justice. Kesler of Claremont McKenna College explains: In truth, the issue is democracy with federalism (the Electoral College) versus democracy without federalism (a national popular vote). Christian Of Education. Either is democratic. Only the Electoral College preserves federalism, moderates ideological differences, and promotes national consensus in our choice of a cask summary, a chief executive.43. Moderation and Compromise . Presidential candidates must build a national base among the states before they can be elected. Of Education. They cannot target any one interest group or regional minority. Instead, they must achieve a consensus among enough groups, spread out over Awareness in Military Intervention, many states, to create a broad-based following among the voters. Any other course of action will prevent a candidate from gaining the strong base needed to win the election.
The necessity of building such a national base has led to moderation and a strong two-party system in christian of education, American politics. Some see this trend toward moderation and a two-party system as a liability. Positive Essay. They argue that certain points of view on the far left or far right do not have representation. Some voters do identify with a third party more than they identify with one of the two major parties. Democratic theories try to philosophy of education satisfy the choices of all voters, but not to the point of Positive, destabilizing democratic majorities and democratic government itself. A system that favors a stable two-party system, but allows minority parties to christian philosophy of education vie for control, has a definite benefit over of amontillado summary, a system that favors many minority parties: Hand in hand with the Electoral College, it tends to prevent the philosophy of education rise to power of extremist groups and radical minorities. Instead, American public policy tends to remain in Awareness in Military Essay, the middle -- not too far left, not too far right.
Some proponents of a direct election system dispute this analysis. Removing the Electoral College, they argue, would not undermine the of education two-party system.44 However, these proponents make the hobbes justice mistake of assuming that they can change one factor while leaving all other dynamics unchanged.45 Predictions of of education, what would happen in a direct election system should assume that it is at Positive Psychology, least possible that changing the election procedure will cause more than one aspect of the political process to change. Indeed, one has only to look to history or comparative governments to see how easily such a system could disintegrate into philosophy of education multi-candidate races, which would, in turn, devolve into a system of regular runoffs or fractious coalition governments. Consider the election of 1992. One of the primary factors that prevented some people from voting for Perot was that they felt their vote would be wasted. A vote for Ross Perot is a vote for Bill Clinton, voters were told. Now imagine the 1992 election without an Electoral College.
Suddenly, the incentives change. Clinton no longer has to be beaten; he just needs to be held under some pre-determined percentage (40% in most proposals for change). Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn. To get in the runoff, Perot voters do not need to win; they simply need to overtake George H.W. Bush. A vote for Perot is no longer wasted. The Reform Party has a specific, achievable goal with which to motivate its supporters. In the of education actual 1992 election -- even with all the disincentives inherent in the Electoral College system -- Perot received 18.9 percent of the popular vote. Cultural In Military Essay. Bush received 37.4 percent of the vote, and Clinton received 43.0 percent.
Had this election been a direct popular election, it would have been only three percent away from christian, triggering a runoff. With such incentives, would not Perot supporters have had a much easier time getting voters to harmenszoon van rijn switch their candidate? Once one runoff has been triggered, why would multiple third parties not jump into the race in future elections? As such a situation became the norm, more and more candidates would be motivated to enter presidential contests. Support from a smaller and smaller percentage of the population would be needed to philosophy of education qualify for hobbes justice the runoff. Of Education. Over time, candidates would become more and more extreme and uncompromising. Professor Judith Best explains this dynamic:
[T]he splintering of the vote works against the moderate candidates and works to the advantage of the immoderate, extreme candidates. It does this because the middle is hobbes justice where the inclusive coalitions can be built. By undermining coalition building prior to the general election, a runoff fragments the middle, not the extremes; the extremes are rarely fragmented -- fanatics have solidarity.46. Direct popular election proponents sound plausible when they argue for election of the President by christian philosophy of education, a majority of the people. In reality, however, a President elected by the majority of Cultural Intervention Essay, citizens will rarely be achievable. A majority, after all, will never agree on an ideal candidate.
Given an christian philosophy open choice, individuals would fracture their votes across many candidates. Runoffs would proliferate, and Presidents would essentially be elected by the initial 20 or 25 percent of voters who got them into the runoff. Presidents would always know that at least 75 to 80 percent of the people originally voted for someone else. Given the general inability to obtain majority consensus, the Electoral College provides the a cask of amontillado country with the next best alternative. Philosophy. Electing Presidents by states' votes, rather than individuals' votes, creates a method of electing a President who is a good compromise candidate for the majority of Awareness Intervention, Americans.47 The Electoral College requires moderation, compromise, and coalition building from any candidate before he can be successful. Direct elections and a system of runoffs discourage such behavior. Stability and philosophy, Certainty in of amontillado, Elections. Historically, most elections have not been close in the Electoral College, even when the christian of education popular vote is close. The Electoral College system, when combined with the winner-take-all rule, tends to magnify the margin of Positive Psychology, victory, giving the victor a certain and demonstrable election outcome.48 The magnification of the electoral vote can work to solidify the country behind the philosophy new President by bestowing an harmenszoon aura of legitimacy. The election of 1960 was one such close election. Christian Philosophy Of Education. John Kennedy won only 49.7 percent of the popular vote, compared to Nixon's 49.5 percent.
However, Kennedy won 56.4 percent of the electoral vote, compared to Nixon's 40.8 percent. Eight years later, this magnification effect worked in Essay on Green, favor of philosophy of education, Nixon. Although he won the popular vote by less than one percent, he won 55.9 percent of the electoral vote to on Green Computing Hubert Humphrey's 35.5 percent. This magnification effect increases dramatically as popular vote totals spread apart. For instance, in 1952, the winning candidate won 55.1 percent of the popular vote, but a much larger 83.2 percent of the Electoral College vote. In 1956, the christian difference was 57.4 percent (popular vote) to hobbes justice 86.1 percent (electoral vote). In 1964, it was 61.1 percent (popular vote) to 90.3 percent (electoral vote). Presidential elections since 1804 have generally seen wide margins of victory in the Electoral College. These margins have gotten wider, on average, through the years as the winner-take-all rule has been adopted by more states and the two-party system has solidified. Since 1804, only christian philosophy of education, two elections -- those in 1876 and 2000 -- were won by fewer than 20 electoral votes. Six elections were won by fewer than 50 electoral votes: Four of these were held in the 1800s.
Of the 26 elections held between 1900 and Essay on Green, 2000, 17 Presidents have been elected after winning the electoral vote by a margin of 200 votes or more. These consistently wide margins of philosophy of education, victory in the Electoral College have come about despite the fact that the margin between the top two candidates in the popular vote was less than 10 percent in of amontillado summary, 14 of the 26 elections held since 1900. This margin exceeded 20 percent only of education, five times since 1900. A direct popular election, by contrast, would not grant certainty nearly as often. Hobbes Justice. Close popular votes, such as those discussed above, could easily result in demands for of education recounts on a national scale. America rarely has close electoral votes. Cultural In Military Essay. It does, however, have close popular votes fairly consistently. Do Americans really want a presidential election system that could result in hotly contested recounts nearly every election? The Electoral College provides yet another benefit: It reduces the incidence of fraud and error. Obviously, no system can completely eliminate the element of human error. Neither can any system eradicate the tendency of some dishonest individuals to cheat.
An election system can, however, minimize the extent to which these factors affect elections.49 The Electoral College defends against christian of education, fraudulent behavior and human error in two ways: First, the system makes it difficult to predict where stolen votes will make a difference. Hobbes Justice. Second, to the degree that fraud and errors do occur, the Electoral College makes it possible to isolate the problem to philosophy one state or a handful of states. The country is Intervention given a clear set of problems to resolve one way or another before moving on to a definitive election outcome -- much as it knew in 2000 that the election would be certain once Florida's disputes were resolved.50. Today, both the philosophy electoral and the popular votes must be extremely close before voting disputes and recounts are threatened. By contrast, a direct popular election would require only a close popular vote before these scenarios became possible. National recounts and The Benefits of Human Genetic examples, legal challenges would be a constant possibility, particularly because of the increasing likelihood of christian philosophy, multiple candidacies, lower individual vote totals, and smaller margins among candidates. Moreover, a direct popular vote system would increase, rather than decrease, the incentive for rembrandt fraud.
Any stolen vote would have at least some effect, regardless of its location. Party officials and supporters in states in which that party clearly dominates have the greatest ability to rig election rules and get away with cheating on behalf of christian of education, their party's candidate. Under the Electoral College system, however, they have the least incentive or need to Essay cheat for their presidential candidate. Using a direct election system, dishonest officials in one-party states have both the ability and incentive to cheat, creating potential resentment, suspicion, and hatred from other states and from the citizens of their own state. The Electoral College minimizes the impact of fraud, isolating it to the one or two states where the vote was close, disputed, and relevant to the Electoral College balance. Direct popular election is not the only alternative to the Electoral College that has been proposed. Two other proposals are also worthy of discussion: (1) The District Plan would award electoral votes by congressional district, rather than by state; and (2) The Proportional Plan would divide states' electoral votes proportionally, according to the popular vote outcome within the state.
Individual legislatures are free to adopt most such plans now. It is christian philosophy of education telling that so few have done so. District Plan. The District Plan would award electoral votes based upon congressional district. The candidate with the most votes in any congressional district would win that district's one electoral vote. The two Senate add-on votes in van rijn, each state would then be treated as at-large votes and christian philosophy, awarded to the state's popular vote winner. Maine and Nebraska already operate under this system. The proposal would require other states to join them. Neither Maine nor Nebraska has divided its electoral votes since their systems were first implemented, but with close presidential elections the odds increase that one or both states will do so. Cultural Awareness Essay. 51. Proponents of the District Plan argue that the system preserves the christian philosophy small-state advantage, while allowing diversity within the states to be reflected in Essay, the national election totals.52 Moreover, they add, candidates would be encouraged to campaign in states previously considered safe.
Greater voter participation would result, they argue, because every voter would feel that his vote counts. Other Electoral College critics dismiss the District Plan, arguing that the plan fails to address the problem of a popular vote winner failing to win the presidency.53 Indeed, Bush's margin of victory in the Electoral College would have been greater under the District Plan, despite his popular vote loss.54. The District Plan retains some of the advantages of the current Electoral College arrangement. America's presidential election system should encourage national coalition building, and campaigning by districts would certainly work toward this goal.55 However, many of the philosophy of education other benefits envisioned by District Plan proponents are unlikely to come to pass. Harmenszoon Van Rijn. Greater voter participation is improbable, particularly in lopsided or safe congressional districts -- and most congressional districts are safe. This so-called reform may actually have the opposite effect from what was intended in states that are close overall but have congressional districts that are not. Even worse, the primary incentive created by the District Plan is an increased motivation for gerrymandering.
State boundaries have one significant advantage over congressional district boundaries: They are reasonably permanent and cannot be changed by an incumbent class of officials.56. Another problem created by the District Plan is that it diverts attention from philosophy, statewide and The Benefits Genetic Engineering, national issues. It discourages candidates from addressing issues that appeal to the state as a whole and might encourage candidates to visit district rich, high-population centers to the exclusion of rural districts. Moreover, if a state votes in pieces, consequential issues would fall out of the larger debate in favor of local grievances. Christian. Focusing on a few swing districts would repeat on hobbes justice a fragmented scale the swing state problem. Candidates might visit only a few close districts and ignore areas considered safe.
Despite these arguments against christian philosophy, the District Plan, the The Benefits Genetic Engineering current system allows a state to switch to the District Plan if it decides that doing so would be beneficial within its borders -- and it may do so without the necessity of christian of education, passing a constitutional amendment. Moreover, the state can switch back to a winner-take-all system if implementing the District Plan causes more problems than it solved (as it is likely to do). Constitutional amendments are not completed -- or undone -- nearly as easily. Proportional Plan. Under the Proportional Plan, the Electoral College would be retained, but the hobbes justice electoral votes in each state would be allocated based upon the percentage of the popular vote won. Some versions of this plan call for christian philosophy of education whole electoral votes to be divided in the interest of accuracy.57 Others also propose that the total number of electoral votes needed to win should be lowered to a 40 percent threshold.58. Proponents argue that the plan would preserve the states' Electoral College strength, but that the results would be closer to the national popular vote outcome.59 They further argue that the voices of minority voting groups would be reflected in the final election tally because even ballots cast for third-party candidates could be reflected in rembrandt harmenszoon, the national results.
Presidents could be elected without winning the christian philosophy of education popular vote, but such an outcome would be less likely than under the current system. Other Electoral College opponents deem even the small remaining possibility of a popular vote loser President to be unacceptable.60. The Proportional Plan is yet another option that sounds good on the surface, but that creates problems in practice. First, constant fighting would erupt over election tallies. Harmenszoon. After all, a swing of one-tenth of a percent in one or several states could change the christian outcome of the election. The Benefits Of Human Genetic Engineering Essay. Potentially, at of education, least one electoral vote in each of the 50 states would be open to harmenszoon van rijn dispute every presidential election year.61 Worse, because this type of election is so similar to christian philosophy a direct popular election system, it contains many of the same downfalls: multiple candidacies, close elections, runoffs, greater potential for fraud, and greater incentives for The Benefits of Human Genetic examples extremist candidates to join the philosophy fray.
Definitive election outcomes are discouraged. Close vote totals and challenges to election outcomes would become the norm. Colorado, however, is currently considering adoption of this plan. A Cask. A Colorado citizens' organization -- financed by philosophy of education, a group from a cask of amontillado, San Francisco and funded by christian of education, a Brazilian millionaire who resides part-time in California62 -- recently collected enough signatures to place a referendum on its November 2004 ballot.If passed, this referendum would supposedly replace Colorado's winner-take-all system of casting electoral votes with a system of Essay, proportional allocation, making Colorado the only state to enact such a method in presidential elections.63. The referendum, however, has a glaring flaw.
It purports to let Colorado voters decide the method of christian philosophy of education, allocating the summary state's electoral votes, despite the fact that the Constitution gives this power to state legislatures, not state citizens.64 For constitutional purposes, the christian philosophy difference is Positive Psychology Essay very real. If the referendum passes, the most likely result is a series of court challenges in Colorado. Proponents of the referendum argue that state statutory and christian philosophy of education, constitutional provisions make the people equivalent to the legislature when they act through referendum or initiative. Therefore, they conclude, passage of a referendum or other citizen initiative is a perfectly legal and valid manner of changing electoral vote allocations in hobbes justice, the state. These proponents, however, have forgotten the Supremacy Clause of the U. S. Constitution: State laws and constitutions may not trump the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land and christian philosophy, preempts all other laws. Of Human Genetic. That same Constitution explicitly designates each state's legislature as the entity with authority to decide the manner of appointing electors.
States (whether by referenda or other means) may certainly delegate legislative power to citizens for state purposes, but they may not delegate the state legislature's constitutionally mandated duties in the national presidential election process. This principle has been upheld by the Supreme Court in venerable old cases and some very recent decisions after the last presidential election. Speaking about an Ohio plan that would allow the people to act in place of the christian philosophy legislature for certain purposes related to ratifying constitutional amendments, the Court observed in 1920 that the Cultural Intervention Founders wrote the constitutional language based upon their wish to secur[e] deliberation and consideration before any change [to the Constitution] can be proposed.65 In short, the Court held, when the christian Constitution says the harmenszoon van rijn Legislature, it means the christian philosophy Legislature. Hobbes Justice. The Court explained that: The framers of the Constitution might have adopted a different method.
Ratification might have been left to a vote of the people, or to some authority of government other than that selected. The language of the christian philosophy article is plain, and admits of no doubt in its interpretation. It is not the function of courts or legislative bodies, national or state, to alter the method which the Constitution has fixed.66. In even simpler terms, however, the Computing Court also pointed out what almost any middle-school child should know: A Legislature is a representative body, not the philosophy of education people themselves. What did the framers of the a cask of amontillado summary Constitution mean in christian philosophy of education, requiring [action] by `Legislatures'? That was not a term of uncertain meaning when incorporated into a cask of amontillado summary the Constitution. What it meant when adopted it still means for the purpose of interpretation. A Legislature was then the representative body which made the laws of the people.67. This principle applies to the constitutional process for electing a President, just as it applies to christian philosophy the constitutional amendment process.68. State legislatures certainly may choose a proportional method of electoral vote allocation if they deem such a method to be in the best interest of their state.
However, if one state acting on its own (particularly a small state) were to of Human Essay enact a proportional method of allocating electoral votes, the primary effect of its action would be to significantly dilute its voting strength as compared to the other states because no presidential candidate will spend much time in christian, a state in The Benefits of Human Engineering examples, which he is likely to christian of education influence only one swing electoral vote. No wonder so few states have enacted anything like this before. Essay Computing. State legislatures will better serve their citizens if they leave the winner-take-all system in place. America's election systems have operated smoothly for more than 200 years because the Electoral College accomplishes its intended purposes. America's presidential election process preserves federalism, prevents chaos, grants definitive electoral outcomes, and prevents tyrannical or unreasonable rule. The Founding Fathers created a stable, well-planned and carefully designed system -- and it works. Past elections, even the elections of Presidents who lost the popular vote, are testaments to christian of education the ingenuity of the harmenszoon Founding Fathers. Philosophy Of Education. In each case, the victor was able to van rijn succeed only because his opponent did not build the philosophy of education national coalition that is required by the Electoral College.
In each case, smaller states were protected from their larger neighbors. In each case, the hobbes justice presidential election system functioned effectively to give the country a President with broad-based support. Alexander Hamilton was right when he described the christian philosophy Electoral College in The Federalist No. 68. Perhaps the Electoral College is imperfect -- but a perfect solution is Computing doubtless unachievable. Nevertheless, the presidential election process devised by the Framers is certainly excellent. Tara Ross is christian philosophy of education a lawyer in Texas and the author of Enlightened Democracy: The Case for the Electoral College (World Ahead Publishing, November 2004). 1. The Federalist No.
68, at 410 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 2. Prior to George W. The Benefits Of Human Engineering Essay Examples. Bush's win, the of education last President to harmenszoon van rijn win the electoral vote but lose the popular vote was Benjamin Harrison in 1888. 3. Christian Philosophy. See, e.g. , Susan Milligan, The Electoral College: Move Is Afoot for Direct Vote , B. Globe, Nov. 12, 2000, at A21. 4. Ben Wildavsky, School of Hard Knocks , U.S. News World Rep., Nov.
20, 2000, at 52, 52. 5. J. Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn. M. Balkin, The Constitution as a Box of Chocolates , 12 Const. Comment. 147, 148 (1995). 6. James A. Michener, Presidential Lottery: The Reckless Gamble in Our Electoral System 3 (1969). 7. Commission on Electoral College Reform, American Bar Association, Electing the President 3-4 (1967). 8. The Federalist No. 68, at 410 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 9. U.S.
Const. amend. XII. 11. See id . art. II, § 1, cl. 2-4. 15. See Federal Register, 2004 List of States and Votes: Allocation of Electoral Votes Based on philosophy the 2000 Census , U.S. Nat'l Archives Records Admin., at http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college/2004/ allocation.html (last visited Oct. 2, 2004).
16. U.S. On Green. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 2. 17. Although some early legislatures did select the presidential electors themselves, all states and the District of Columbia now hold popular elections for President. See, e.g. , Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98, 104 (2000) (per curiam) (The individual citizen has no federal constitutional right to vote for electors for the President of the United States unless and until the christian philosophy of education state legislature chooses a statewide election as the means to The Benefits of Human Genetic Essay examples implement its power to christian philosophy appoint members of the Electoral College. . . . [The state legislature] may, if it so chooses, select the electors itself.); see also McPherson v. Blacker, 146 U.S. 1, 34-35 (1892).
18. Me. Rev. Stat. Harmenszoon. Ann. Philosophy Of Education. tit. Hobbes Justice. 21-A, § 802 (West 1992); Neb. Rev. Christian Philosophy. Stat. § 32-1038 (1998). 19. Act of Feb. 3, 1887, ch. 90, 24 Stat. 373 (current version at 3 U.S.C. §§ 1-21 (2000)). 20.
3 U.S.C. § 1 (2000). 23. See U.S. Awareness In Military Intervention. Const. Philosophy Of Education. amend XII. 24. See Federal Register, supra note 15, at http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college/2004/allocation.html. 25. U.S. Const. amend XII. 27.
The Federalist No. 68, at 410 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 28. The Federalist No. 10, at 76 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 29. 2 The Debates in the Several State Conventions, on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, as Recommended by the General Convention at Philadelphia, in 1787, at 253 (Jonathan Elliot ed., 2d ed.
1836). 30. Letter from a cask, John Adams to John Taylor (Apr. 15, 1814), in 6 The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States 447, 484 (Charles Francis Adams ed., 2d prtg. 1969). 31.
Letter from Benjamin Rush to John Adams (July 21, 1789), in 1 Letters of Benjamin Rush 522, 523 (L. H. Butterfield ed., 1951). 32. James Madison, Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, at 64 (Adrienne Koch ed., bicentennial ed., W.W. Norton Co.
1987) (1966). 33. The Federalist No. 39, at philosophy, 236 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., Signet Classic 2003) (1961). 34. Senate Comm. on the Judiciary, 91st Cong., Direct Popular Election of the rembrandt harmenszoon President (Comm. Print 1970) (Minority Views of Messrs. Christian Philosophy. Eastland, McClellan, Ervin, Hruska, Fong, and Thurmond), available at http://www.claremont.org/writings/700814_minority.html (citation omitted).
35. See, e.g., Rethinking the Electoral College Debate: The Framers, Federalism, and One Person, One Vote, 114 Harv. L. Rev. 2526, 2532 n.31 (2001); see also Lawrence D. Longley Neal R. Peirce, The Electoral College Primer 2000, at 136 (1999). 36. All election results cited in this article were obtained from Congressional Quarterly's Presidential Elections or the U.S.
National Archives and Records Administration's Web site. See Congressional Quarterly Inc., Presidential Elections: 1789-1996 (1997); Federal Register, U.S. Electoral College, U.S. Nat'l Archives Records Admin., at Positive, http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college (last visited Oct. 2, 2004). 37. Christian Philosophy Of Education. See, e.g., James MacGregor Burns, The Deadlock of Democracy: Four-Party Politics in The Benefits Genetic, America 251 (1963), quoted in christian philosophy, Judith Best, The Case Against Direct Election of the President: A Defense of the Electoral College 66 (1975). 38. Essay Computing. See Ronald Reagan, Reagan, In His Own Hand 243 (Kiron K. Skinner et al. eds., 2001) (making a similar argument). 39.
E.g., Patrice Hill, W.Va. Miners Favor Bush Over Gore on Fossil Fuels, Wash. Times, Oct. 11, 2000, at A12; Chris Mondics, Gun Issue a Difficult One for Gore, Balt. Sun, Nov. 5, 2000, at 5C. 40. Electing the President, 2000: The Insiders' View 170 (Kathleen Hall Jamieson Paul Waldman eds., 2001) (quoting Bill Knapp, senior advisor to the Gore/Lieberman campaign). 41.
Id. at 204(quoting Karl Rove). 42. Longley Peirce, supra note 35, at 153-54. 43. Philosophy. Kathryn Jean Lopez, Hillary Is Wrong: An Interview with Charles R. Hobbes Justice. Kesler, Nat'l Rev. Online (Nov. 13, 2000), at http://www.nationalreview.com/interrogatory/interrogatory111300.shtml. 44. See, e.g., Neal R. Peirce Lawrence D. Christian Philosophy. Longley, The People's President: The Electoral College in American History and the Direct Vote Alternative 211-12 (rev. Awareness In Military Intervention Essay. ed., Yale Univ. Press 1981) (1968).
Longley and Peirce contend instead that the two national parties are in decline due to christian of education the advances made in mass communication in The Benefits of Human Genetic Engineering examples, recent years. Id. 45. See, e.g., Judith A. Best, The Choice of the christian People? Debating the Electoral College 55 (1996); see also Robert M. Hardaway, The Electoral College and the Constitution: The Case for Preserving Federalism 21 (1994) (What the advocates of Positive Psychology Essay, direct election fail to take into account, however, is christian that these consistently large pluralities and majorities are the result of the very Electoral College system they are seeking to destroy.). 46. Best, supra note 45, at 57. 48. For a discussion of the of Human discrepancy that typically exists between popular vote totals and Electoral College vote totals, see id. at christian, 9-15; Hardaway, supra note 45, at 125-28.
49. See, e.g., Best, supra note 37, at 191-204 (noting the ability of the Electoral College to isolate incidents of fraud); see also Hardaway, supra note 45, at 25-28 (discussing the 1960 election and van rijn, the uncertainty that could have resulted from the close count and christian philosophy, the alleged fraud). 50. Recounts in New Mexico were briefly discussed, but were not pursued. A changed outcome in New Mexico would not have changed the outcome of the Psychology national election. 51.
Maine adopted its District Plan in 1969, putting it into of education effect for the first time during the 1972 presidential election. Of Amontillado. Nebraska adopted its plan in time for the 1992 presidential election. See Longley Peirce, supra note 35, at 106-07 (discussing the circumstances under which Maine and Nebraska adopted procedures for awarding electoral votes by district). 52. See L. Paige Whitaker Thomas H. Neale, Congressional Research Serv., The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals 17-18 (2001) (reporting the arguments of District Plan proponents). 53. See, e.g., id.; see also David W. Christian Philosophy. Abbott James P. Levine, Wrong Winner: The Coming Debacle in the Electoral College 126 (1991) (discussing the crucial shortcoming of the District Plan: It does nothing to correct the wrong-winner perversion); Peirce Longley,supra note 44, at 142 (discussing the disparities that would still exist between the popular and electoral vote totals under a District Plan). 54. See, e.g., Ky Fullerton, Bush, Gore, and the 2000 Presidential Election: Time for the Electoral College to Go?, 80 Or.
L. Essay On Green Computing. Rev. Christian Philosophy Of Education. 717, 734 (2001) (citing Rhodes Cook, This Just In: Nixon Beats Kennedy, Wash. Post, Mar. 25, 2001, at B2). Bush would have won 288 to hobbes justice 250 in the electoral vote. Cook, supra, at B2. 55. Proponents sometimes argue that the District Plan would prevent campaigning from christian philosophy of education, focusing on swing states.
True enough, but candidates would likely focus on swing districts instead. See Peirce Longley,supra note 44, at 142. 56. Hobbes Justice. See Best, supra note 45, at 61-62 (discussing the increased incentives for gerrymandering). 57. Colorado is currently considering a plan to allocate its electoral votes proportionately, according to popular vote outcomes in the state. See discussion infra notes 62-68 and accompanying text. 58.
Whitaker Neale, supra note 52, at 19-20 (relating the logistics proposed for a proportional division of electoral votes).
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Angel Pavement By John B Priestley Essays and Research Papers. ?Analysis “ Angel Pavement ” by Priestley The extract under analysis is christian philosophy written by an English novelist, playwright . and a broadcaster, John Boynton Priestly. “ Angel Pavement ” is his novel published in 1930. It brought him a great success. Some problems are touched in this novel, for example, a problem of upbringing, a generation gap. Generally, Priestly touches upon problems in the society, emphasizes its inconsistency. The extract dwells upon a common dinner of hobbes justice, a family.
Mr. Smeeth, the head of philosophy of education, a. A Cask Summary? Child , Edna, Texas , J. B. Priestley 523 Words | 2 Pages. The Image of Harold Turgis in Angel Pavement. The Image of christian philosophy of education, Harold Turgis Harold Turgis is one of the main characters of the on Green Computing novel Angel Pavement by philosophy of education, J. B . . Priestley . Harold worked for Twiggs and Dersingham, which dealt with a sale of veneers() and inlays. His position is described in the novel as Stanley's senior or Mr. Smeeth's junior clerk, which can be explained that he is hobbes justice not a bad worker, but not good enough either, he is somewhere in-between. And this fact doesn't let the reader feel drawn to him from the very beginning of the. Of Education? Maida Vale 1734 Words | 4 Pages. ‘an Inspector Calls’ by J. B. Positive Psychology? Priestley. ‘An Inspector Calls’ by J. B . Priestley In Act One of ‘An Inspector Calls’, how does J. B . Philosophy Of Education? . Priestley use dramatic devices to Genetic Engineering convey his concerns and ideas to of education members of the audience, as well as interest and involve them in the play? In Act One of ‘An Inspector Calls’, J. B . Priestley uses several different dramatic techniques to voice his concerns, ideas and political message about socialism to the members of the audience. He uses characters, lighting, sounds, props, dramatic irony and.
An Inspector Calls , Drama , Irony 2004 Words | 5 Pages. Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract This paper explores the life and achievements of hobbes justice, John Broadus Watson. He was a famous psychologist known as the Father of . Behaviorism. Watson was best known for his views and theories known as behaviorism.
Watson is also known for comparative and experimental psychology, and perhaps his most famous experiment, the Little Albert Experiment. Christian Philosophy Of Education? On February 24, 1913, he delivered a famous lecture that is believed to be the birth of behaviorism. Watson’s experiments and publications made major. Behavior , Behavior modification , Behaviorism 1836 Words | 5 Pages. John Boynton Priestley , OM (13 September 1894 – 14 August 1984), known as J.B. Priestley , was an English novelist, . playwright and broadcaster. He published 27 novels. Angel Pavement is his novel, published in 1930, it established him as a successful novelist. It is a social panorama of the city of The Benefits of Human Engineering Essay, London, seen largely through the eyes of the employees of the firm Twigg amp; Dersingham, on the first floor of No. 8, Angel Pavement . Christian Philosophy? One of the problems raised in the novel is the of amontillado summary problem of upbringing.
A Different World , Angel Pavement , Dangerous Corner 838 Words | 2 Pages. [Email Page] [Add to Folder] [Printable Page] Watson, John B . Born : 1878 Died : 1958 Nationality : American . Occupation : psychologist RELATED BIOGRAPHIES: • Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich • Skinner, B . F. (Ethics) RELATED ESSAYS: • Ethics in Advertising and Science • Rights of christian philosophy, Human Research Participants John Broadus Watson was one of the most controversial leading figures in hobbes justice, American psychology. A pioneer in christian philosophy, behaviorism, Watson wrote accessible. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1427 Words | 5 Pages. ?No Angel Losing a close relative is something no one is Essay on Green ever really prepared for. It is as well different from individual to christian individual how . you react to the loss of hobbes justice, a dear one. Of Education? On the one hand, you would like to a cask of amontillado summary remember them and christian of education, still let them be a part of your life but on a cask of amontillado the other hand, you have to of education move on for the hobbes justice sake of yourself. Christian? Living in on Green, the past has never proved useful. Many experience this dilemma thus many struggle to decide when the time is to christian philosophy of education return to the daily life and continue. Death , Fiction , First-person narrative 1146 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the Extract from Angel Pavement by Psychology Essay, J.Priestly.
John Boynton Priestley , OM (13 September 1894 – 14 August 1984), known as J.B. Priestley , was an English novelist, . playwright and broadcaster. He published 27 novels. Angel Pavement is his novel, published in christian of education, 1930, it established him as a successful novelist. It is a social panorama of the city of London, seen largely through the eyes of the employees of the firm Twigg Dersingham, on the first floor of No. 8, Angel Pavement . One of the problems raised in the novel is the problem of upbringing. . Hobbes Justice? A Different World , Angel Pavement , Dangerous Corner 837 Words | 2 Pages. ?No Angel Grief is individual because everyone handles his or her sorrows differently. No one wants to be alone and therefore to loose someone . you love can be tremendously painful and difficult to overcome.
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Human , Human body , Love 2592 Words | 7 Pages. New Testament November 5, 2012 Role of Angels Unlike most books in the Bible, where they are mostly historical, Revelation is a book on . prophecy. It is believed that John the Apostle. The word ‘revelation’ means ‘unveiling’, it is the unveiling of an apocalypse. It is the only apocalyptic book in the Bible. In Revelation, Jesus will come again to show his servants what is going to happen. Christian? This is similar to the Gospel of John , where Jesus comes to show what his Father has shown him.
Angles come. Apocalypse , Book of Revelation , Christian terms 2018 Words | 5 Pages. 4156364-62939200J.B PRIESTLEY John Boyton Priestley was born on the 13th September 1894 in Yorkshire. His . father was a head master, and Essay, his mother died when Priestley was 2. His father remarried 4 years later. He knew early on that he wanted to philosophy be a writer, although he decided against going to a university. At the age of 16 he became a clerk for a local wool firm called Helm amp; Co. in the Swan Arcade When the of Human Engineering examples First World War broke out philosophy he joined the The Benefits of Human Essay infantry. Luckily, he escaped death on. British Empire , First World , Global conflicts 500 Words | 1 Pages. Comparing Angels – Art History Essay I am comparing ‘The Angel of the North’ (Figure1) by Anthony Gormley and Jacob Epstein’s . Philosophy Of Education? sculpture of ‘Jacob and the Angel ’ (Figure 2). Evan though I find both pieces inspiring I prefer Gormley’s work as it is a monumental piece. ‘The Angel of the North’ (1994- 8) is positioned in Gateshead. It stands more than 20 metres from the ground and is made from nearly 200 tonnes of steel.
It has a wingspan of 54 metres and they are tilted at a cask of amontillado summary a 3.5? angle to which Gormley. Angel of the christian North , Antony Gormley , Art 2285 Words | 7 Pages. ?Michelle Irizarry An angel is a supernatural being or spirit found in hobbes justice, various religions and mythologies. Angels depicted as . benevolent celestial beings that act as intermediaries between Heaven and Earth are often found in christian philosophy of education, Zoroastrianism and Abrahamic religions. In Latin and Judaism angels are known as the messenger of God. Also known as, the holy ones or the hobbes justice upper ones. Angels have different roles that benefit others.
Their roles include protecting and guiding human beings. Christian Philosophy? They are also in charge. Angel , Archangel , Archangels 1050 Words | 5 Pages. significance relating to angels and a cask summary, demons reveals dilemmas facing the true believer: how to understand who angels and demons . are and how they work in Christian lives. There is a soul-claiming war that rages on between the philosophy spiritual inhabitants of angels and demons on earth. Angels and demons are fighting for Positive, human spirits and christian philosophy of education, faith. Depending on who wins the war will inevitably determine where we spend eternity.
Angels : Theological Definition The term angel means messenger. Angels are of a divine hierarchy. Bible , Christian terms , Christianity 1278 Words | 4 Pages. We Celebrate Failure John Herlihy B F. John Herlihy, B F 2008 “We celebrate failure. If you are not failing enough, then you are not taking enough risks…. So what we . do here is fail and fail fast”. _______________________________ Google: ‘What we do is fail - and fail fast' (Business Finance; 20 November 2008) Google made ˆ7.8bn profits last year - John Herlihy, head of The Benefits of Human examples, its Irish operations, discusses innovation with Fearghal O'Connor Walking into Google's high-spec Dublin offices is like delivering champagne to George Best's hotel. Dublin , Facebook , Failure 2305 Words | 4 Pages. Margaret Laurence's, The Stone Angel , the stone angel is a symbol used to heighten the reader's understanding of the . characteristics of christian, Hagar Shipley. First, the stone angel is used to show Hagar's pride in the Currie family name. She prizes the stone angel because it is expensive and imported from Italy to honour a mother Hagar never knew. Similarly, the stone angel is symbolic of Hagar's inability to show emotions; like the angel , Hagar is hard and cold.
Lastly, the angel is symbolic of harmenszoon van rijn, Hagar's blindness. Blindness , Family , Manawaka 891 Words | 3 Pages. The Killer Angels Letters: First Letter. Foreward: A. Christian Philosophy Of Education? The Confederate officer who I like the most is Robert Edward Lee. I believe that a . strong leadership is needed to captain the Confederate Army.
General Lee is the commander of the the army, so he is Awareness certainly a brilliant leader. Also, Lee is “a gentleman” (xvi). “He does not drink or smoke or gamble or chase women”; he does not believe in slavery. Most importantly, I like Lee’s disposition. He can control himself very well and never loose his. American Civil War , Battle of Gettysburg , Confederate States Army 1182 Words | 3 Pages. Reference list: Greenman, J. (2005, May). Places for childhood in the 21st century: A conceptual framework. Beyond the Journal. Young Children on the Web. . Retrieved 20 December, 2006, from http://www.journal.naeyc.org/btj/200505/01Greenman.pdf Kaiser, B ., Rasminsky, J.S. (2003). Challenging behavior in christian philosophy, young children: Understanding, preventing, and a cask of amontillado, responding effectively.
Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Miller, D. F. (2007). Positive child guidance (5th ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomas Delmar Learning. Christian Philosophy Of Education? Child , Childhood , Early childhood education 1848 Words | 9 Pages. Grammar- Bedford Pages 354 – 365 Exercises 32 A - E Exercise 32-1- a) Alisa brought the harmenszoon van rijn injured bird home and fashioned a splint out of Popsicle sticks . for christian, its wing. (Take out Positive comma) b ) Considered a classic of early animation, The Adventures of philosophy of education, Prince Achmed, used hand-cut silhouettes against Awareness, colored background. c) If you complete the enclosed evaluation form and return it within two weeks, you will receive a free breakfast during your next stay. d) Correct e) Roger had always. Alvin Ailey , Hironobu Sakaguchi 669 Words | 3 Pages. under the title The Prophet's Camel Bell in 1963. Then she turned her attention to philosophy of education Hagar Shipley of The Stone Angel , a character which emerged . from her life in the prairie province of Manitoba. The Stone Angel was the first of her Manawaka novels, a series of five novels set in and around the fictional town of Manawaka, which Laurence based on her hometown of Neepawa, Manitoba. The Stone Angel was published in a cask of amontillado, 1964 and was followed by the rest of the of education Manawaka novels namely A Jest of God(1966), The Fire-Dwellers(1969). Canada Reads , Leon Rooke , Manawaka 1705 Words | 5 Pages.
The Stone Angel Introduction: The Stone Angel , first published in 1964 by McClelland and Stewart, is perhaps the The Benefits Engineering examples best-known . of of education, Margaret Laurence's series of novels set in the fictitious town of Manawaka, Manitoba. In parallel narratives set in the past and the present-day (early 1960s), The Stone Angel tells the of Human Genetic Essay story of christian of education, Hagar Currie Shipley. In the present-day narrative, 90-year-old Hagar is struggling against being put in a nursing home, which she sees as a symbol of death. The present-day narrative. Death , Life , Manawaka 1924 Words | 5 Pages. Outline I. Introduction A. Early Seventeenth Century Metaphysical Poetry II.
The Life of John Donne A. Family Background . B . Essay On Green? Education and christian of education, Study C. Henry's Death D. Anne More E. Life with his wife F. Holy Orders G. Death of Psychology, Anne More H. Death of John Donne III. Donne's Writing A. Subjects i. Love ii. Religion iii. Death IV. My Favorite A. Christian Of Education? Since she whom I loved hath paid her last debt B . A look into sonnet XVII V. Conclusion In early seventeenth century English poetry, a. Helen Gardner , John Donne , Love 1493 Words | 5 Pages. ? “The Stone Angel ” CPT It is often said that those with the biggest egos are the a cask ones that are easiest to christian philosophy bruise. Pride, being one of . the seven deadly sins is the feeling of pleasure from one’s own achievement and Essay, being prideful over a quality or skill. In many stories where tragedy occurs, pride is often the downfall of many characters and christian philosophy of education, causes the character’s demise. In the novel “The Stone Angel ” written by Margaret Laurence, pride is a dominate theme because it causes characters to disconnect. Lasse Hallstrom , Margaret Laurence , Pride 1407 Words | 4 Pages. Testament Mr.
Horton November 18th 2012 John the Baptist John the of amontillado summary Baptist was an important religious figure in the New . Testament. John the Baptist was, according to the Bible, the cousin of Jesus Christ. He was the son of Mary's sister, Elizabeth. He was a little older than Jesus. He was Jewish, and philosophy of education, lived in Israel.
As with Jesus, we don't have any information from that time about John the Baptist except what the Bible says. According to the Bible, when John grew up, he began to live a very holy life. Baptism , Christianity , God in Christianity 2407 Words | 6 Pages. vocations, and race of his ancestors.” (1930) John B . Watson Behaviorism Theory ‘Time Line  John . B , Watson was born to Positive Emma and christian, Pickens Watson in Greenville, SC. On Green Computing?  John graduated with his masters degree from of education Furman University. [1901-‘03] Married Mary Ikes and had two children. Later he divorced and had two more children with another graduate student. He received his Ph. D and became an Essay, associate professor at John Hopkins University. [1913-‘15] He published one.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Furman University 278 Words | 2 Pages. argue as to why the Confederacy was defeated at Gettysburg? What evidence does he present to christian make his point? Do you agree or disagree with him? . Hobbes Justice? Trevor Jenke Professor Lockwood History 1301: M-W 12:30 2 December, 2013 Killer Angels Book Review 1. During the philosophy Civil War, there were two sides, the Confederate Army and the Union Army. While the Confederates fought for slavery, the Union fought for hobbes justice, their freedom. While the Confederates fought for the continuance of state’s rights.
American Civil War , Battle of Gettysburg , Confederate States Army 1844 Words | 5 Pages. Paradise Lost - John Milton's Satan; Hero or Not? Throughout time, John Milton's Paradise Lost has been studied by many people and christian, comprehended in many different fashions, developing all kinds . of Positive Essay, new interpretations of the great epic. There have been many different interpretations of this great epic. Milton's purpose in writing the epic was to explain the christian philosophy of education biblical story of Adam and Eve. Although the Positive Psychology Essay epic is similar to the Bible story in many ways, Milton's character structure differs from that of the Bible's version. All through out the epic Milton. Athena , Epic poetry , Fallen angel 1837 Words | 5 Pages. The Stone Angel Event by event, memory by memory the scales fall from christian philosophy of education Hagar's eyes until she sees clearly her own nature.
No longer blaming . others, she dies courageously by being fully responsible for her own life. What are the stages of Hager's enlightenment. The novel The Stone Angel portrays an image of a ninety-year-old woman, Hagar Currie, who confronts her past of personal failures in an attempt for rejuvenation before death. Hagar has lead a life dominated by authority and Essay, memories. Confinement , Margaret Laurence , Solitary confinement 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Paul makes a very selfish decision. Recently after reading the story “Paul’s Case” I heard a song by Adele called “Chasing Pavements ” which . immediately reminded me of Paul’s Case. Philosophy Of Education? “Should I give up, or should I just keep chasing pavements . ” sings Adele. It takes patience and perseverance to accomplish your dreams, you can either give up (as Paul does) or keep “chasing pavements ” and continue to hobbes justice do everything you can to make your life the one you’ve dreamt of for so long. Christian Of Education? When we are first introduced. Adele , Carnegie Hall , Case Western Reserve University 874 Words | 3 Pages.
The Significance of the Stone Angel. The Benefits Engineering Essay? Hillary Sayers Sayers 1 ENG 3U Mrs. Christian? DeLorenzi May 9, 2010 The Stone Angel : Significance of the Title The Stone . Angel , published in 1964, is one of Margaret Laurence’s best known novels. Throughout the novel, Laurence reveals how life was in Western Canada during the 1930’s. In The Stone Angel , the hobbes justice ninety-year-old protagonist reflects on her life attempting to of education understand herself. During the recollection of her past, the audience discovers that Hagar had a rough life as she had to endure. Canada Reads , Emotion , Leon Rooke 1572 Words | 5 Pages.
Outline Thesis Statement: John Steinbeck’s view on social consciousness introduces the Cultural Intervention idea that we should help those in . need by giving a voice to those who are voiceless, which can make the world into a better place. 1. Steinbeck’s childhood. Philosophy Of Education? A. Of Amontillado? Born on February 27, 1902 B . Born in Salinas , California C. Was not wealthy but comfortable 2. Family. A. Father: John Ernest Steinbeck 1. (1863-1935) B . Mother: Olive Hamilton Steinbeck . Christian? Great Depression , John Steinbeck 722 Words | 4 Pages. ?DaVon Davis English 110 Poem Analysis Air and Angels Poem Analysis John Donne's poetry is a product of the Psychology Shakespearean times . the English were under. Both born with a taste of philosophy, wealth then having it deplete with age seems to be a common trend within the times.
1589 is the presumed year Shakespeare began to write and publish his works. Positive? Four years later in 1593, Donne's younger brother died in prison due to philosophy of education a fever after being arrested for providing sanctuary for a Catholic priest. This caused. Angel , Catholic Church , Love 1072 Words | 5 Pages. ? Peter Dang Ethnomusicology 50B Discussion N March 11 2013 John Coltrane: A Legendary Saxophonist of Jazz History As a . saxophonist, composer, and rembrandt, bandleader, John Coltrane extended his influence way beyond the 1960s to the point that his impact is still felt today through modern jazz musicians. A role model for even his contemporaries, through his use and application of techniques, styles, and his influential band, Coltrane has inspired jazz performers since the christian of education 1960s to attain. Bebop , Free jazz , Jazz 1287 Words | 4 Pages. Psychology January 22, 2012 John B . Watson John Broadus Watson, an American psychologist, was born in of amontillado summary, Travelers . Christian? Rest, South Carolina on January 9, 1878.
Watson began his post-secondary education at Furman University where he got his master’s degree at Positive Psychology age 21, then to christian philosophy of education the University of Chicago where he studied philosophy. In 1901 Watson got married to Mary Ickes and had two children followed by Cultural in Military Intervention, acquiring his Ph.D. in christian, psychology in 1903. In 1908, he began teaching psychology at Cultural Awareness John Hopkins University proceeded. Christian Philosophy Of Education? Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Furman University 411 Words | 2 Pages. ?Miguel Monedero-Gold Fallen Angels Essay Contemporary Voices 3/20/15 Fallen Angels “I saw courage both in the Vietnam War and in . the struggle to hobbes justice stop it. I learned that patriotism includes protest, not just military service.” ( John F. Christian? Kerry) The Vietnam War truly showed the courage of many, and the willingness of men and women to defend their country at all costs. Fallen Angels by Walter Dean Myers is a story about the struggles of a young man with hemophilia, struggling to cope with the conditions. Of Human Genetic Essay? Army , Boy , Cold War 1029 Words | 4 Pages. Hell’s Angels: a Picture of christian philosophy of education, Gang’s Delinquency. over time, despite the differences of where it is located and even despite the hobbes justice difference in its substructure (Klein 3). This paper would discuss the unique . and general nature of an American street gang.
It would discuss the motorcycle gang, Hell’s Angels and how they characterized the unique nature of an American gang. It would also consider the christian of education dangerous tendencies of juvenile delinquents in fueling the growth of the American street gang member population. Gangs never just developed as an a cask summary, accident. Crime , Criminology , Gang 2376 Words | 7 Pages. Perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman. Philosophy? Perspectives of of Human Engineering Essay examples, John B . Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman Learned behaviors come from of education forms of conditioning stimulus. . The two forms of conditioning: classical and operant. Each one has an effect on a person’s behavior.
Classical conditioning is Psychology Essay when a behavior is from a neutral stimulus along with another stimulus of significance. Christian Of Education? Operant conditioning is a learned behavior that comes from the effect of receiving consequences for ones actions. Both of these learning conditionings cause. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 958 Words | 3 Pages. A Cask Summary? Baptism God sent John the Baptist to prepare the way of the Lord by preaching repentance and baptism. Christian Philosophy? John baptized his . converts by immersion in water.
The very meaning of the word baptize means to immerse.# When a person is baptized they will go completely down in the water. Jesus was God manifested in flesh. Therefore, He was perfect and sinless and yet, even the Lord and The Benefits Essay, Saviour Himself was baptized by John the Baptist. And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness. Baptism , Christian terms , Christianity 646 Words | 3 Pages. Christian Philosophy Of Education? Exploring Spirituality in Angels in a cask, America. coming professionals. In his play, Angels in America, Tony Kushner uses religious imagery and biblical references to help his characters find . meaning in philosophy of education, modern America as well as a means for convincing the of Human Genetic Engineering audience that prophecy is possible in secular times and to help illustrate the age-old struggle between religious morals and of education, sexuality in Cultural in Military Intervention Essay, the twenty-first century. Tony Kushner, who is of Jewish descent, utilizes Christian and Mormon ideologies in the writing of Angels , but Judaism is by christian of education, far the most. Gay , Hebrew alphabet , Hebrew language 1472 Words | 4 Pages. John B.Watson John B . Watson is an The Benefits of Human Genetic Engineering, American Psychologist and christian, an important contributor of behaviorism. Hobbes Justice? He . established the Psychological School of Behaviorism.
Watson was born January 9, 1878 in South Carolina to Pickens Butler and Emma Watson. His father was an alcoholic. He left the family when Watson was 13 years old, a transgression that Watson would never get over. Watson’s mother tried to provide him with a better opportunity to philosophy be successful in Psychology Essay, life. Watson attended Furman University at. Behavior , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 597 Words | 2 Pages. Christian Philosophy? Section1: Research who J.B Priestly was; make a list of notes summarising details about him, his beliefs and his writing.
About John . Hobbes Justice? Boynton Priestley : John Boynton Priestley was born in the West Riding of Yorkshire on 13 September 1894. His father was a headmaster and his mother died when he was just two years old, leaving his father to remarry four years later. He grew up into christian of education a family and a wider group of friends who enjoyed the arts. As he grew up he was caught up in Positive Psychology Essay, in-depth. Adolf Hitler , J. Christian Of Education? B. Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn? Priestley , Labour Party 1694 Words | 5 Pages. How Does Priestley Create Tension? 'An Inspector Calls' was written in 1945 but was set in1912 by J.B Priestly, based before World War One. Priestley proposes equality. The . Philosophy Of Education? Inspector speaks about them all being the same. 'We are members of one body'. Priestley's use of the word 'body' shows that we are all connected and linked. Van Rijn? Everyone needs to work together.
The Inspector wants to teach the Birlings how to be more responsible and that money and class is not going to make you a better person and should change their attitudes towards. An Experiment with Time , An Inspector Calls , Bradford 1176 Words | 3 Pages. What is the Importance of Inspector Goole and how does Priestley present him? In many ways, the inspector is the most important character in An inspector calls and Priestley manipulates the personality and christian, actions of this . particular character as the perfect citizen who doubles up as a driving force to change the ways of stereotypical upper/middle class people. The language and stagecraft Priestley uses reinforce the a cask of amontillado importance of the inspector and make us understand that this inspector, Police or not, is one to be taken seriously. Right from the moment he is introduced. Philosophy? An Inspector Calls , Bradford , J. Genetic Examples? B. Priestley 872 Words | 3 Pages. Alesha K. McCarty Title: Summary, Reaction, and Analysis Paper #1: Iron-Jawed Angels Iron-Jawed Angels is a film . which portrays the 1920’s women’s suffrage movement.
They led the struggle for christian philosophy, the passage of the 19th amendment to the constitution which gave women the right to vote. Alice Paul and Lucy Burns along with other strong women petitioned, campaigned, and picketed to Awareness Intervention Essay publicize the issue. Of Education? After being arrested for Positive Psychology, “traffic violations” a group of women spent time in Occoquan. Alice Paul , Iron Jawed Angels , Lucy Burns 1518 Words | 4 Pages. As one of the christian philosophy most influential poets of his time, John Donne set the bar high for aspiring poets in many decades to come. Donne was born in on Green, . London, England in 1572 into a devout Roman Catholic family. Of Education? Donne was born during a time when practicing religion was illegal in England, but his family practiced anyway and avoided attention to be able to do so. Donne’s prominence in the Church of England was likely influenced by his upbringing, which in of Human examples, return highly influenced his poetry. Depictions of British. Death , England , Holy Sonnets 830 Words | 3 Pages. The Stone Angel Margaret Laurence's story of The Stone Angel is about the life Hagar Currie an emotionless, stubborn and . proud woman.
Margaret Laurence uses this stone angel , originally bought by Hagar's father, to christian philosophy of education embody the qualities of The Benefits of Human Engineering Essay, Hagar. These virtues are often identical to those one assumes are possessed by the stone angel and are paralleled many times by Laurence. Throughout the novel, Hagar relives her life through her memories. Over the course of the christian philosophy of education novel, one realizes that. Canada Reads , Ellen Page , Leon Rooke 3079 Words | 7 Pages. Of Human Engineering Essay? John Broadus Watson, an American psychologist born in 1878, was the founder of Behaviorism. The goal of behaviorism is to predict and christian of education, control . behavior. Watson was against Essay on Green, mentalism, his reasons being, psychology should be observed through behavior, not inner consciousness that is something unobservable. He conducted many experiments throughout his career, including the controversial “Little Albert” experiment.
Being the founder of behaviorism and the creator of the psychological school of behaviorism. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , First World 476 Words | 2 Pages. Justice for Angel Joanie Miller Colorado Technical University Online Abstract This paper explores the life of the of education New York Club Kids, . Michael Alig, Robert “Freeze” Riggs, and the death of Angel Melendez. The New York Club Kids were involved in many illegal activities. These activities included excessive drug use, parties in various public places, and Engineering Essay, murder. Their drug use included marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, and christian philosophy of education, ketamine hydrochloride (animal tranquilizer known as Special K). The. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Club Kids 1576 Words | 5 Pages. Angel and Tess: A Romance Fit For the Books? Romeo and Juliet, Antony and Cleopatra, Napolean and Josephine.
Throughout society's entire . existence, we have known almost innately that these couples belong together, and harmenszoon, yet fate intervened to christian philosophy of education deal their relationship a tragic blow. Yet readers persist on viewing these couples as the most passionate of all times. What makes them so unique? What makes them so compatible? What makes everyone see them as half of hobbes justice, a whole instead of two? These. Angel Clare , Elliott Smith , Figure 8 1458 Words | 4 Pages. ? John Milton “Paradise Lost” analysis John Milton - one of the greatest poets of England, the largest . writer and leader of the Great British revolution. Everything written by Milton in of education, half a century, the undeniable skill, pales next to his masterpiece - the poem Paradise Lost. Awareness In Military Essay? As a student, poet, decided to create an epic piece that would be glorified England and its literature.
The poet reflects on the reason of christian, disobedience of the first four people who violated. Adam and Eve , Archangel , Epic poetry 2432 Words | 6 Pages. Mr Golspie’s Role in of amontillado summary, the Novel Angel Pavement. Essay What is Mr Golspie’s role in the novel Angel Pavement ? When we come to see Twigg amp; Dersingham company in philosophy, the . Angel pavement for the first time it present a sorry spectacle. The first chapter contains a detailed description of a street and the employees at Twigg amp; Dersingham.
We learn that the life of the main characters such as Mr. Smith, Turgis or Miss Matfield is rather dull. The story is set against the background of the Great Depression. Their work at the office is quite monotonous;. Positive Essay? Great Depression , Great Depression in the United States , Novel 606 Words | 2 Pages. ?1. What role does honor play in the novel? Honor played a major role in novel, Killer Angels . Throughout the christian book, Honor was a concept that . remained important to members of the armies, regardless of whether they were supporting the Union or the Confederacy. Every action and decision was made with the intention of being heroic and as honorable as possible. 2. From your reading of Intervention, Killer Angels , what do you think was the main reason the Civil War was fought? While the North lightly interpreted. American Civil War , Army of christian, Northern Virginia , Battle of Gettysburg 1069 Words | 3 Pages.
John Donne is the name in English Literature who gave new direction to the literary activities of his age. He is in The Benefits of Human Genetic Essay, a sense founded the . metaphysical lyric, which was practiced by scare of philosophy, writers. As Dowden says, “We are told that in the decline of the greater poetry of the Elizabethan period, a metaphysical school arose and hobbes justice, that John Donne was the founder or the first eminent member of this school.” John Donne set up a new tradition in versification by and large Donne must be regarded as an original. Andrew Marvell , Helen Gardner , John Donne 1385 Words | 4 Pages. Maximum Ride: the Angel Experiment. Maximum Ride: The Angel Experiment is the first book in the Maximum Ride series by James Patterson. The book was released in christian of education, the US on April . 11, 2005 and in the United Kingdom on July 4, 2005. The book is set in the near future and centers around the 'flock', a group of human-avian hybrids (98% human, 2% bird) on harmenszoon van rijn the run from the scientists who created them.
It focuses on Maximum Ride (Max), the leader of the 'flock', and the first-person narrator of the story. Fourteen-year-old Maximum Ride, better. Ariel Sharon , Hurricane Katrina , James Patterson 1159 Words | 3 Pages. August 12, 2012 Title: The Killer Angels Author: Michael Shaara Historical Event Depicted: This novel illustrates the Battle of . Gettysburg, often known as the turning point of the great American Civil War. Southern slave-holding states, known as the Confederate States of christian philosophy, America, fight the war with loyal Union states for secession. The Battle of Gettysburg is rembrandt harmenszoon where Union Major General George Gordon Meade’s Army of the of education Potomac defeats Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. American Civil War , Army of Northern Virginia , Battle of Gettysburg 2242 Words | 7 Pages. Hunter S. Thompson wrote a novel entitled, “Hell’s Angels ”, which explored and captured the insanely vile and wretched antics of the California . grown outlaws. Of Amontillado Summary? The Hell’s Angels were a psychotic, attention-seeking, grubby chopper gang who had a knack, if not a love, for shocking Middle America. This was done by any means necessary, even if that meant contradicting their own sexual orientation just to get jaws to drop to the floor.
The Hell’s Angels succeeded in christian, either frightening or intriguing the. Gang , Hells Angels , Outlaw 1337 Words | 4 Pages.
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PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION The Purpose and Scope
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civic virtue essay We are pleased to publish Illinois Issues ' first Paul Simon Essay. And we are grateful for the generous support of the Joyce Foundation, which made possible this first contribution by political philosopher Jean Bethke Elshtain of the University of Chicago Divinity School. Our goal in commissioning these annual essays will be to find new ways to frame policy questions. One of the magazine's founders, Simon had a deep interest in the moral and ethical dimensions of christian philosophy, a wide range of issues. Though the magazine's mission has always been to publish in-depth analyses of Essay, policy questions, we have never consistently approached policy from an ethical or moral perspective.
But these essays will be distinct in of education that they will take clear positions about the state's collective responsibilities. In Military. And this theme will be the thread that ties the project together over the years. We created the Paul Simon Essay in our 30th anniversary year to honor one of the magazine's founders. We plan to commission another high-quality essay every year in christian of education his name. And this is where you can help. Of Amontillado Summary. We invite you to make a financial commitment to the future of philosophy, Illinois Issues and to the kind of The Benefits of Human Engineering examples, reporting and writing that informs and challenges politicians and citizens alike. For your convenience, we have provided a link to the University Foundation. Please remember to tell them you want your gift to go into christian of education, the Paul Simon Essay Fund. by making a gift here to the. PAUL SIMON ESSAY FUND. University of Illinois Foundation.
Billy Morrow Jackson. He's one of the leading landscape artists of the Midwest. And though he is a noted realist painter, we were drawn to the subtle idealism in two of his cityscapes, which are published with permission in this essay. Both manage to capture the social and political interconnections of rembrandt van rijn, community. Philosophy. Jackson's works have been displayed in hobbes justice the National Museum of philosophy of education, American Art and in the Library of Congress in Essay on Green Computing Washington, D.C., as well as in many other museums across America. He was on of education the art faculty at the University of Illinois for many years and continues to hobbes justice live and christian of education work in Champaign. PAUL SIMON ESSAY. Moral imperatives grounded in religion call us to come to of amontillado know a good in common we cannot know alone. Civil society is on the tips of many tongues these days. This shouldn't surprise us not in the American democracy. American civic life was not lopsidedly state-centered, as in Europe, but more dispersed, more open to citizens within the purview of christian, their particular communities.
When we speak of civil society, we call to mind that world of associational enthusiasm that so enchanted Alexis de Tocqueville when he toured the on Green, fledgling republic during the Jacksonian era. Tocqueville observed something new under the political sun a world of civic engagement that was neither officially governmental, nor specifically economic. Civil society, then, is neither work life nor structures of governance but, rather, the many-sided world of churches, voluntary organizations of christian philosophy of education, every sort, community networks, far-flung national efforts with local affiliates, and on and on. Moral norms and a cask notions are interlaced with civil society; indeed, people propel themselves into community and organizational life because there are things they care about, values they endorse, goods they embrace. Without morality, there would be no civil society as we have come to understand it. Nearly a decade ago, I chaired a Council on philosophy of education Civil Society that produced a report titled A Call to Civil Society that was released to the nation at large. Our council was composed of of Human Genetic Engineering Essay, a bipartisan group of distinguished citizens from many walks of life: law, politics, the professoriate, community organizing, mothers' organizations, the clergy, business and labor. The premise that underwrote and framed all our thinking was a profound yet simple one: American civic life is a moral imperative. Some critics took strong exception to our findings and christian of education our claim. No, they declared, in so many words, civil life is about economic interest or power, about who gets what, when and how. Some even suggested that we had knowingly steered the discussion away from structural constraints to the ground of personal morality because we had not wanted to tackle the power and income disparities in American life.
But the ground of morality is where Americans have always engaged politics. Think of abolitionism, the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, dozens of peace and justice organizations. There is a long history to all of The Benefits Engineering Essay, this, for American civic life from its inception was premised on the complex intermingling of moral and christian philosophy civic imperatives. Computing. If you re-read the papers, pronouncements, declarations and letters of our founders, the moral tone is inescapable. Philosophy. Even those, like Thomas Jefferson, who were not traditional Christians (though the vast majority were), spoke of nature and nature's God and a cask of amontillado about the divine providence involved in christian philosophy of education America's coming-to-be. They had no doubt that the American project was a moral as well as a civil experiment. With what many have called the refounding of our nation during the Civil War, the tone of America as a moral project grew ever more explicit and Genetic profound. In his great Second Inaugural , a masterpiece of brilliant prose and economy, Abraham Lincoln evokes God no fewer than 14 times this is an address that is christian philosophy, only a few pages in Essay on Green length.
So the critics really didn't have a leg to stand on when they complained that we were somehow substituting morality for politics. Christian. In America, you cannot separate the two. So powerful was this intermingling that Lincoln could refer to the nigh-mystic ties of Genetic examples, brotherhood that linked us to our fellow citizens. In my book about the horrible events of 9/11 and of education our reaction to it, I wrote of the poignant and profound civic fellowship that we, as citizens, experienced in on Green relation to all our fellow Americans as we identified with one another and, most especially, the christian of education, bereaved families of the murdered innocent. To be sure, there are many foreign critics, as well as the domestic ones I have noted, that either cavil at the American connection of the van rijn, moral and the political, or fail to understand it at all.
For example, there are foreign critics who see the hand of a crude would-be theocracy lurking just beneath the surface of the christian philosophy, moral pronouncements of our political leaders, Democrats and Republicans. Critics do not appear to rembrandt harmenszoon appreciate that, were one to yank the christian philosophy of education, moral imperatives out of American civic life, historically and currently, there would be very little left. And critics often fail to understand that one of the most cherished values of many who interject morality into political debate is the free exercise of religion. Positive Psychology. No one wants a theocracy. But citizens have always sought ways to embody certain cherished norms in political life. Consider but a few of the moral civic projects or civically moral projects of the American past. Philosophy. The quest for independence itself was construed in moral terms. This wasn't just a power grab by hobbes justice, a few agitators on the eastern seaboard. No, in the hearts and minds of those making the case for revolution, a deep moral ethic, grounded in a providential understanding of history, lay in the American appeals for, and claims to, independence. The rights of American colonials as Englishmen were being abridged, to be sure. But more, much more, than that.
Our God-created and christian of education sustained liberties also were being violated by the English king. The colonists launched what, in the writings of political philosopher John Locke, an influential figure to our founders, was called the appeal to Essay Computing Heaven. By this, Locke meant that, were political remedies unavailable to deal with egregious and continuing violations, a people could, in christian extremis, make their appeal to Heaven. That meant they articulated clearly their grievances before God and man; they demonstrated the ways in Essay Computing which a political and civic standing grounded in our very natures was under assault. In political statements, the rebels declared their allegiance to certain universal laws of christian of education, nature, good for all time and all places.
And God was the author of these laws. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of Psychology Essay, convulsive social and political movements forged powerful links between religious faith, morality and desired political ends. I have already noted abolitionism, the temperance movement spearheaded by the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. None is understandable outside an appreciation of the christian philosophy, moral imperatives for civic engagement each entailed. Abolitionism and women's suffrage drew upon biblically derived norms to critique what amounted to systematic assaults on those norms. In cases of such conflict, we are obliged to obey the higher law rather than the flawed and unjust laws of man so went the argument. Slavery denied the moral equality of all persons in the eyes of God, and the presumptions concerning decent or ill treatment that flowed from that equality. Separating women from the of amontillado summary, franchise, consigning them to second-class citizenship based on gender alone, thus to a noncivic status in a full-fledged sense, raised deep moral questions of political morality. The third movement on my list temperance is in a rather bad odor these days. We see it as an christian philosophy of education, example of narrow moralism rather than acceptable morality. Cultural Essay. But to the vast armies of women who were soldiers in christian the temperance movement, excessive drink was directly responsible for The Benefits Genetic Engineering examples the ruination of families and christian philosophy the catastrophes that flowed from that.
Whether one finds temperance arguments persuadable or prudent is, of course, a long-debated matter. But it would be patently absurd to harmenszoon van rijn refuse to see the robust link between morality and politics in this, and so many other broad-based movements for civic and social transformation. On the smaller scale, in philosophy of education thousands of communities nationwide, citizens, including the hundreds of thousands of women who could not yet vote but were engaged in a plethora of civic activities nonetheless, did the hard work of building and sustaining decent communities on the basis of deeply cherished moral imperatives most often derived from their faith. From the beginning and since, religious faith mutually engaged with and helped to constitute political life. The skeptic might grant this much but then go on to argue that that was then, this is now. They would then go on to describe now as a period when there is no workable civic consensus on nearly all politically and morally fraught matters; when we are a vastly different and religiously pluralistic nation where once we were more uniform; when the necessary civic projects can be undertaken most effectively in the absence of religious or moral influence. They see religion as encouraging obstreperousness and dogmatism, as a way to try to hobbes justice shove things down people's throats. Since morality in christian America most often derives from a cask of amontillado religion, it follows, to these skeptics, that we are better off without either as far as the civic world is concerned. Philosophy. Other critics might not go that far but would say that they aren't against morality they just think it belongs in private life and should not be a central part of rembrandt harmenszoon, civic life, for to involve it is an christian philosophy of education, inappropriate mingling of Essay on Green, church and state.
Such criticisms are rather easily answered, I think. All one need do is point to christian the many dogmatisms favored by Cultural Awareness Intervention, self-declared secularists to demonstrate that dogmatism and philosophy religiously based morality are not synonyms. There is plenty of of Human Genetic examples, dogmatism from time to time to philosophy go around. One might then go on to show how ordinary American politics would come to a dead halt were morality to be stripped away, for Americans think of their lives and the lives of their communities in inescapably moral terms. Hobbes Justice. To insist that persons of christian, faith with moral convictions are obliged to Essay cast aside those beliefs when they enter into a political dispute is to unfairly saddle about 80 percent (or more) of the American public with an unfair and draconian burden. This is not a matter of philosophy, blurring church and state. Church and state are not synonymous to religion and The Benefits of Human Engineering examples politics. We keep the christian philosophy, first pair separate; we put the second pair together all of the time. In the Call to Civil Society we reminded readers that America is unique in being a polity knowingly brought into being on the basis of a cluster of universal moral propositions.
It is The Benefits Engineering examples, overwhelmingly the case that much of our civic life has been involved in trying to bring our practices into greater harmony with our principles. If we truly believe that our liberty and dignity come from God, what political implications flow from that? If we truly believe that we cannot have decent politics absent a sturdy moral compass, what difference does it make? Every reader can answer the first of these two questions for himself or herself, for christian we have seen the answers work themselves out in our history in The Benefits of Human Genetic Essay and through the movements I have already noted and more. Think again of the christian, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the moral-political fight for integration. Think of a variety of ethical responses to war and war-making. Of Amontillado. Think of concerns with Third World poverty or the AIDS crisis or just about any major global problem to find moral voices crying out. So the first question finds ready answers.
The second question is a bit more difficult. What difference does it make? Do we really need God-talk if we have rights-talk? For God-talk at least as much as rights-talk is the philosophy, way America has spoken and continues to speak, to a remarkable extent. Awareness. I see the difference working itself out in christian philosophy a number of Positive Psychology Essay, ways. First, we know from the philosophy of education, most reliable social science data and Cultural Intervention evidence that persons who attend church regularly are far more likely to philosophy be active participants in of amontillado summary their communities on the civic level than those who have little or no connection to religion.
So there is an christian of education, empirical dimension available to us. The difference religiously derived morality makes is that it is more likely to get us up and a cask out of the philosophy, house and into civic life than the alternative of no religious connection or a very thin one. Second, those engaged in civic life on the basis of moral imperatives are more likely to articulate reasons for engagement that go beyond self-interest. When that great traveler and political observer Tocqueville toured America, he noted something new under the political sun, namely, the extraordinary role religion played in American civic and political life. So important was this to Tocqueville that he devoted many chapters of summary, his masterwork, Democracy in America, to christian of education the theme. Tocqueville believed a quest for democratic equality was nigh-irresistible. But he feared that certain excesses might follow as everybody hunkers down in an individualistic way and goes in van rijn quest of the same thing. Christian. This might invite what Tocqueville called democratic despotism, a terrible isolation of selves, with the government increasingly a powerful and remote stranger. To forestall this dire outcome, Tocqueville insisted that religion and its robust presence would become more, not less, important as American democracy matured.
For religion and religiously derived moral imperatives call us out of ourselves, call us to come to know a good in common we cannot know alone. By this Tocqueville did not mean that everyone had to become an evangelical or get born again as it is called then and now; rather, he insisted that strong religious institutions help to constitute hope. Hope is born anew with the birth of each child. The world into which we are born may nourish or crush that hope. Religion nurtures and sustains hope as a constituent feature of hobbes justice, our identities and morality. Christian Philosophy Of Education. It insists that we hopefully engage one another; that we really are our brothers' and sisters' keepers. It was said of the early Christians, see how they love one another. Something of that love or caritas is necessary if we are to forestall a slide into isolating individualism and sustain the hope that, in turn, nourishes civic life. Those of us who are involved in on Green the debate about civil society often speak of civic virtue.
I prefer the plural civic virtues for civic virtues are plural, not singular. Christian. Engaging with others from a stance of Essay, open-hearted conviction and sincerity is philosophy, a civic virtue and it requires patience. The Benefits Of Human Engineering Essay. When we try to engage others to persuade them, we open ourselves up to persuasion at the same time. It takes a bit of fortitude to do that. We know that we are never going to get our own way all of the christian of education, time.
Compromise is hobbes justice, a civic virtue in a democracy. Decent compromise is something we have to learn as this civic virtue doesn't come easily. When I was in Prague, the Czech Republic, in the heady days following the so-called Velvet Revolution of 1989, I was told by a dissident, who suddenly found himself in philosophy government, that one of the things he and his compatriots had to learn was the virtue of compromise. For us it has been a dirty word, he said, because we refused to compromise with the Communist regime. But now that we are democratic citizens, we must treat compromise as a virtue, as a lesson to be learned. Moral courage is a civic virtue. It takes some gumption to go against the grain because you believe a deep moral norm is being violated. A Cask Of Amontillado Summary. There is a story about the christian philosophy of education, redoubtable Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the founders of the women's suffrage effort and its leading theoretician. Stumping for suffrage in Kansas in the company of Kansas suffrage leaders, she told one, as they prepared to go on stage to face hoots and catcalls, that they should hold their heads high and persevere. My dear, she said, we must all have a bit of stage courage.
We must sometimes stand fast even at the risk of being a bit unpopular. Participation is Awareness in Military Intervention, a moral virtue. Critics of the insistence that civil society is a moral imperative sometimes say, Well, since you like participation so much, I guess that means you cannot criticize the Ku Klux Klan or the militias. They certainly mobilize people to participate. At this, one shakes one's head ruefully. For if such critics were paying careful attention, they would understand that participation of the sort civil society advocates, honors and praises must be consistent with the christian of education, dignity of the human person. Most of our highly charged moral-political debates have to do with human dignity. Harmenszoon. The abortion debate forces one to ask who is in christian philosophy of education or outside of the moral community. Positive Essay. Is the of education, unborn child a moral being of infinite worth, or not? From the stance of human dignity, rather than exclusively rights, this question looks rather different.
End-of-life issues vex and alarm us. We hear the phrase dying with dignity. But what does this mean? If we think of humans as beings of infinite worth, what responsibilities does this impose on us if one among us is ill or infirm or permanently disabled? Unfortunately, with the hobbes justice, hotly contested stem cell debate, some have chosen to represent the issue as science versus private faith, or science versus irrationality. But here, too, questions emerge concerning human dignity and worth. Do we permit a set of businesses devoted to the manufacture and destruction of christian, human embryos? Or is the liberal journal Christian Century right that this amounts to an unprecedented instrumentalization of human life?
These questions give us a framework for debate as we keep in mind the moral imperative that frames civil society rightly understood. Civil society cannot be a realm within which private interests masquerade. as public concerns. It follows that no form of activism that systematically degrades whole categories of people because of accidents of The Benefits of Human Genetic examples, birth (such as race or gender) can be part of a world of morally derived civic virtues. Finally, we live in philosophy of education a morally divided era. On many of the central moral issues there are deep and abiding disputes. In a democracy, it is the case that these disputes will come to the surface and be debated, one hopes in a spirit of civic brotherhood and The Benefits of Human Genetic examples sisterhood. Of Education. September 11 reminded us in the most shocking and horrible way how much we are a part of one another; how much a murderous assault on some is a murderous assault on all. As the great Lincoln put it, We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
We can live with our differences so long as they do not become dangerous divides that invite invidious assault. Harmenszoon. Perhaps one might say that civic engagement as a moral imperative calls us to active civic life and, additionally, calls upon us to christian temper our claims in order that all of harmenszoon, us might participate in civic life as equals one to the other. Jean Bethke Elshtain is the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Social and Political Ethics at the University of Chicago. She also is philosophy, co-chair of the national Pew Forum on hobbes justice Religion and Public Life. Elshtain has written extensively on the connections between the nation's political and ethical convictions.
The timely Just War Against Terror: The Burden of American Power in a Violent World was published in 2003. Augustine and the Limits of Politics was named one of the top five religion books of 1996 by The Christian Century . And Democracy on Trial was named a New York Times notable book in 1995. She's a contributing editor of The New Republic magazine. Illinois Issues , May, 2005. For information about how to subcribe to Illinois Issues go to:
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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and philosophy of education, structuring an essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the Awareness Essay, subject into christian of education a workable topic. Subject vs. The Benefits Of Human Genetic Engineering Essay Examples? Topic.
For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the christian of education, cost of running a campaign or the rembrandt van rijn, training of a police dog. You will need to find a subject. 3. You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. Philosophy Of Education? When choosing a topic think about the of Human Genetic Essay examples, impact you will have on the reader and allow yourself time for consideration. It should have an impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting.
You’ll want to know about the topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and christian, read about the topic. You will want to shape the topic to the appropriate length for hobbes justice, your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering. 7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the purposes are:
To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences. To inform the reader of something To persuade the philosophy, reader to think or act a certain way. Essay Examples? You may want to think about entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write.
Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Questions. Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to christian of education, yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about a cask of amontillado summary a particular idea or topic. Of Education? Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay. Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay.
The thesis tells what an essay is going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at a cask the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the writer has about the topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what you’re going to be discussing in the essay. Christian Of Education? It guides the Essay on Green, reader; it tells the christian, reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic. It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the of Human Genetic, essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an essay map.
The essay map breaks the philosophy of education, thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. The e ssay map is hobbes justice, generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the christian philosophy, Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln.— --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and Essay, more luxurious.—
Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, there’s nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.— Improved Thesis.
Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in christian of education, state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years.— Factual statements leave the Computing, writer with nothing to say, with no way to christian, develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—. Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—.
--I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the Psychology Essay, best way to choose a major.— --Our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice.— --It is interesting to philosophy, consider the various meanings of love.— --We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12. Hobbes Justice? Evaluating Thesis Statement.
Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and of education, then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in The Benefits Genetic Engineering, Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of christian, trouble—. On Green? This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to christian philosophy, talk to is very important—. This is a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into Cultural Awareness in Military Intervention Essay the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to philosophy, do that is by:
Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis.
It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis. This is Essay Computing, important because the philosophy, body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by Cultural Awareness in Military Intervention, presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the christian philosophy of education, thesis. It is important to develop each of on Green Computing, your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs.
Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Christian Philosophy Of Education? Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. The Benefits Genetic Essay Examples? Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the philosophy of education, reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the a cask of amontillado summary, main ideas of the essay. Gives the reader something to philosophy of education, think about.
It looks back or looks ahead. You’ll want to move the in Military Intervention, reader to action. The conclusion influence’s the reader’s final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. Philosophy Of Education? It is the last impression the Awareness Intervention, reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to christian philosophy, the rest of your essay. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph.
Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and Psychology, ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to start Planning the christian philosophy, Essay . You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an Essay, in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details.
Generally is written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Of Education? Points to develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments.
Writers who prefer only main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Hobbes Justice? Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the christian of education, scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the rembrandt harmenszoon van rijn, relationships between the main idea and philosophy, the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points. Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft.
The first draft of your essay is referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the a cask summary, introduction and go back to it later. The important thing is to complete the draft of the christian philosophy, essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for hobbes justice, a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement.
by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to philosophy of education, Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Cultural in Military, Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16.
How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. Christian Philosophy Of Education? I participated in a few debates myself.
My most famous one was the right to Essay examples, bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the christian philosophy, writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and Genetic Essay, each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on an article about philosophy of education writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida.
Thanks for The Benefits Engineering Essay examples, your visit. This came from notes taken from one of my English classes at christian College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in rembrandt harmenszoon van rijn, all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to field. Christian Philosophy Of Education? I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is rembrandt harmenszoon, not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida.
Thank you for the compliment. Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to christian philosophy of education, write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for your visit and comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial.
Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from on Green Computing, Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment. This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on christian philosophy of education, my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on summary, a paper that is due at the end of the session. I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and christian philosophy, this hub has proved to of Human Genetic Engineering examples, be extremely helpful. Thank you.
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