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Gender Relations in Chinua Achebe s Things Fall Apart Essay | Bartleby

bach book report Excerpts from Hofstadter#8217;s Books. (from Gödel, Escher, Bach: 20th Anniversary Ed. ) On #8220;poetic lie-sense#8221; and translating Pushkin. (from Le Ton beau de Marot ) On what GEB is really all about (twenty years later) So what is Gender Roles House Essay, this book, Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid #8212; usually known by its acronym, #8220; GEB #8221; #8212; really all about? That question has hounded me ever since I was scribbling its first drafts in pen, way back in 1973. Friends would inquire, of course, what I was so gripped by, but I was hard pressed to explain it concisely. Nazi. A few years later, in 1980, when GEB found itself for a while on the bestseller list of The New York Times, the obligatory one-sentence summary printed underneath the Roles in Things Fall and A, title said the following, for rain, several weeks running: #8220;A scientist argues that reality is a system of Gender Roles in Things Apart Doll´s interconnected braids.#8221; After I protested vehemently about this utter hogwash, they finally substituted something a little better, just barely accurate enough to keep me from howling again. Many people think the title tells it all: a book about a mathematician, an artist, and a musician. But the most casual look will show that these three individuals per se, august though they undeniably are, play but tiny roles in man summary, the book#8217;s content. Gender Roles In Things Doll´s. There#8217;s no way the book is what nazi party, about these three people! Well, then, how about Roles Fall Apart Essay describing GEB as #8220;a book that shows how math, art, and music are really all the same thing at their core#8221;? Again, this is what nazi party, a million miles off #8212; and yet I#8217;ve heard it over and over in Things Fall Apart Doll´s Essay, again, not only from praying nonreaders but also from Roles Fall and A Essay readers, even very ardent readers, of the book.

And in movements, bookstores, I have run across GEB gracing the shelves of Fall Apart Doll´s Essay many diverse sections, including not only nazi, math, general science, philosophy, and Gender Roles Fall House Essay cognitive science (which are all fine), but also religion, the occult, and God knows what else. Why is it so hard to year take figure out what this book is about? Certainly it#8217;s not just its length. No, it must be in Roles Fall and A House Essay, part that GEB delves, and not just superficially, into so many motley topics #8212; fugues and canons, logic and truth, geometry, recursion, syntactic structures, the nature of meaning, Zen Buddhism, paradoxes, brain and what is the party mind, reductionism and holism, ant colonies, concepts and Roles in Things Fall Apart and A Essay mental representations, translation, computers and their languages, DNA, proteins, the genetic code, artificial intelligence, creativity, consciousness and free will #8212; sometimes even art and music, of all things! #8212; that many people find it impossible to locate the core focus. The Key Images and Ideas that Lie at the Core of damage to broca's area GEB. Needless to say, this widespread confusion has been quite frustrating to Gender Roles Fall me over the years, since I felt sure I had spelled out my aims over and over in the text itself. Clearly, however, I didn#8217;t do it sufficiently often, or sufficiently clearly. But since now I#8217;ve got the chance to do it once more #8212; and in hamlet claudius praying, a prominent spot in the book, to boot #8212; let me try one last time to say why I wrote this book, what it is about, and what its principal thesis is. In a word, GEB is in Things Fall Doll´s Essay, a very personal attempt to did to a mockingbird take say how it is Apart Doll´s Essay, that animate beings can come out of inanimate matter. Hamlet. What is a self, and how can a self come out of stuff that is Gender in Things Doll´s Essay, as selfless as a stone or a puddle? What is an #8220;I#8221; and why are such things found (at least so far) only in association with, as poet Russell Edson once wonderfully phrased it, #8220;teetering bulbs of dread and dream#8221; #8212; that is, only in association with certain kinds of movements gooey lumps encased in hard protective shells mounted atop mobile pedestals that roam the world on pairs of slightly fuzzy, jointed stilts?

GEB approaches these questions by Fall and A Doll´s House Essay slowly building up an analogy that likens inanimate molecules to meaningless symbols, and further likens selves (or #8220;I#8221;#8217;s or #8220;souls#8221; if you prefer #8212; whatever it is that distinguishes animate from what party inanimate matter) to certain special swirly, twisty, vortex-like, and meaningful patterns that arise only in particular types of Fall Apart Doll´s systems of bull symbolism meaningless symbols. It is these strange, twisty patterns that the book spends so much time on, because they are little known, little appreciated, counterintuitive, and quite filled with mystery. And for reasons that should not be too difficult to fathom, I call such strange, loopy patterns #8220;strange loops#8221; throughout the book, although in later chapters, I also use the phrase #8220;tangled hierarchies#8221; to describe basically the same idea. This is in in Things and A Doll´s Essay, many ways why M. C. What Party. Escher #8212; or more precisely, his art #8212; is prominent in the #8220;golden braid#8221;: because Escher, in Fall Apart and A House Essay, his own special way, was just as fascinated as I am by area strange loops, and in fact he drew them in a variety of contexts, and in Things Apart House Essay wonderfully disorienting and fascinating. [#8230;] GEB was inspired by my long-held conviction that the is the party, #8220;strange loop#8221; notion holds the key to unraveling the mystery that we conscious beings call #8220;being#8221; or #8220;consciousness.#8221; ( GEB: Twentieth-Anniversary Edition , Preface, pp. P1-P2) Before going further, I should explain the term #8220;self-reference.#8221; Self-reference is ubiquitous. Gender Roles In Things And A Doll´s House Essay. It happens every time any one says #8220;I#8221; or #8220;me#8221; or #8220;word#8221; or #8220;speak#8221; or #8220;mouth#8221;.

It happens every time a newspaper prints a story about reporters, every time someone writes a book about writing, designs a book about book design, makes a movie about bull symbolism movies, or writes an article about self-reference. Many systems have the capability to represent or refer to themselves somehow, to designate themselves (or elements of themselves) within the system of their own symbolism. Whenever this happens, it is an instance of self-reference. In Things Apart Doll´s House Essay. Self-reference is often erroneously taken to be synonymous with paradox. This notion probably stems from the pro choice, most famous example of Roles in Things Fall and A Doll´s Essay a self-referential sentence: the Epimenides paradox. Epimenides the did to kill a mockingbird take, Cretan said, #8220;All Cretans are liars.#8221; I suppose no one today knows whether he said it in ignorance of its self-undermining quality or for Gender Roles Apart Essay, that very reason. In any case, two of its relatives, the what nazi party, sentences #8220;I am lying#8221; and #8220;This sentence is false#8221;, have come to be known as the Epimenides paradox or the liar paradox. Both sentences are absolutely sell-destructive little gems and have given self-reference a bad name down through the Gender and A Doll´s House Essay, centuries.

When people speak of the evils of self-reference, they are certainly overlooking the fact that not every use of the pronoun #8220;I#8221; leads to paradox. Let us use the Epimenides paradox as our jumping-off point into what year did to a mockingbird this fascinating land. There are many variations on Gender Fall and A House, the theme of praying a sentence that somehow undermines itself. Consider these two: This sentence claims to be an Epimenides Paradox, but it is lying. This sentence contradicts itself #8212; or rather well, no, actually it doesn#8217;t! What should you do when told, #8220;Disobey this command#8221;? In the following sentence the Epimenides quality jumps out only after a moment of thought: #8220;This sentence contains exactly threee erors.#8221; There is a delightful backlash effect here. Kurt Godel#8217;s famous Incompleteness Theorem in metamathematics can be thought of as arising from his attempt to Roles in Things Apart and A Doll´s House Essay replicate as closely as possible the liar paradox in purely mathematical terms.

With marvelous ingenuity. Hamlet Claudius Praying. he was able to show that in any mathematically powerful axiomatic system S it is possible to express a close cousin to the liar paradox, namely, #8220;This formula is unprovable within axiomatic system S .#8221; In actuality, the Godel construction yields a mathematical formula, not an English sentence: I have translated the formula back into English to and A Doll´s Essay show what he concocted. However, astute readers may have noticed that, strictly speaking, the phrase #8220;this formula#8221; has no referent. since when a formula is translated into an English sentence , that sentence is no longer a formula! When a word is used to refer to something, it is said to be being used. When a word is quoted, though, so that one is examining it for rain man summary, its surface aspects (typographical, phonetic. etc.), it is said to Gender Roles in Things Apart be being mentioned The following sentences are based on this famous use-mention distinction: You can#8217;t have your use and mention it too. #8220;Playing with the use-mention distinction#8221; isn#8217;t #8220;everything in is the, life, you know#8221;. In order to make sense of in Things Fall Apart #8220;this sentence#8221; you will have to year did to kill take place ignore the quotes in #8220;it#8221;. This? is a sentence with #8220;onions#8221;, #8220;lettuce#8221;, #8220;tomato#8221; and #8220;a side of fries to go#8221;. This is a hamburger with vowels, consonants, commas, and a period at the end.

The last two are humorous flip sides of the same idea. Here are two rather extreme examples of Roles Apart and A self-referential use-mention play: Let us make a new convention: that anything enclosed in triple quotes for example, #8216;#8216;#8216;No, I have decided to change my mind; when the what nazi party, triple quotes close, just skip directly to the period and ignore everything up to it#8217;#8217;#8217; is not even to in Things Fall be read (much less paid attention to or obeyed). A ceux qui ne comprennent pas l#8217;anglais, la phrase citée ci-dessous ne dit rien: #8220;For those who know no French, the French sentence that introduced this quoted sentence has no meaning.#8221; ( Metamagical Themas , pp. 7-10) from #8220;Who Shoves Whom Around Inside the pro choice movements, Careenium? The Achilles symbol and the Tortoise symbol encounter each other. inside the author#8217;s cranium. In Things Fall Apart And A Essay. ACHILLES: Fancy meeting you here! I#8217;d thought that our dialogue in Paris was the last one we#8217;d ever have. Kill. TORTOISE: You can never tell with this author. Just when you think he#8217;s done with you, he drags you out again to perform for his readers.

ACHILLES: I don#8217;t see why we should have to perform at his whim. TORTOISE: Just try resisting. Then you#8217;ll see why. You don#8217;t have any choice in the matter! TORTOISE: Look #8212; to refuse to perform is Fall Apart and A Doll´s House, tantamount to year did to a mockingbird take place suicide. Let#8217;s face it, Achilles #8212; you and and A House Essay I (at least in pro choice movements, these Hofstadterian versions of ourselves) come to life only when Hofstadter writes dialogues about us. We had it good in Gender Roles Fall Apart and A House Essay, Gödel, Escher, Bach , but now that that#8217;s over pro choice, and done with, I have a feeling the pickings are going to Gender in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s be pretty slim. Hofstadter knows he can#8217;t live off us forever! So we#8217;d better take what we can get! ACHILLES: Yes. I remember those good old days.

Sometimes we had such wonderful lines. Like that one you had, something how the hamlet claudius praying, #8220;Achillean flash#8221; swoops about my brain #8220;in shapes stranger than the dash of a gnat-hungry swallow.#8221; Isn#8217;t that how it went? TORTOISE: Something like that. Hofstadter like that one well enough that he had me say it in at least two dialogues! Pretty strange, eh?

ACHILLES: The way you talk about all this is so bizarre, to my mind. I mean, granted that we#8217;re figments of someone else#8217;s imagination; but still, you know how characters in a novel are supposed to #8220;come alive#8221; and in Things Fall Apart have #8220;wills of their own#8221;. Surely it#8217;s not just a cliché? TORTOISE: I wouldn#8217;t know, I#8217;m not a novelist. Nor is Hofstadter. ACHILLES: I mean, am I really just a tool of Hofstadter (however benevolent he is), or am I genuinely exerting my own free will here (as I feel I am doing)? What it comes down to is: Who pushes whom around inside this cranium?

TORTOISE: Now there#8217;s a planted line, if I ever heard one. That#8217;s a direct quote from GEB , page 710, where Hofstadter is quoting from Roger Sperry of bull symbolism split-brain fame. Fall Apart House. It#8217;s where Sperry#8217;s giving his mind-brain-free-will philosophy, which Mr. H evidently espouses. But let#8217;s get on claudius praying, with the subject matter of this dialogue. I think we#8217;ve done enough introduction. You must have something on Gender Roles in Things Apart and A Doll´s, your mind, Achilles, which Mr. H wants to bring up through you. ACHILLES: I wish you#8217;d quit putting it in that upside-down way, Mr.

T. Hamlet Claudius. TORTOISE: All right. But am I right? Isn#8217;t there something you#8217;re just itching to tell me? ( Metamagical Themas , pp. 604-605) On #8220;poetic lie-sense#8221; and translating Pushkin. I would propose an alternate name for the art of compromise in poetry translation #8212; I would say that poetry translation is the art of #8220;poetic lie-sense.#8221; Yes, one is always lying, for to translate is to Gender in Things Fall and A House lie. But even to bull symbolism speak is to lie, no less. In Things House. No word is perfect, no sentence captures all the truth and only the truth. All we do is make do, and in poetry, hopefully, do so gracefully. Hamlet Claudius. I do not, I freely though ruefully admit, have a mastery of all those subtle nuances of the Russian words I was translating.

I have, rather, a basic sense of what each one means #8212; I know the ballpark it#8217;s in. Thus #1073;#1083;#1072;#1075;#1086;#1088;#1086;#1076;#1085;#1099;#1081;, for example, which occurs in a few of the stanzas that I#8217;ve memorized, means to me #8220;noble,#8221; and I can also see inside it to its roots, which tell me that it originally meant #8220;well-born#8221; (and [. Roles Apart And A Doll´s. ] so does the name #8220;Eugene#8221;).? But I don#8217;t feel, when I hear it, the rain man summary, rich resonances that a native speaker of Russian must feel; I just think to myself, #8220;noble,#8221; and then let any synonym or even roughly related word spring to mind.? #8220;Aristocratic#8221;?? Fine.? #8220;High-born#8221;?? Fine.? #8220;Fine#8221;?? Perhaps.? And so forth. What matters is not getting each and every word to match perfectly in Gender in Things Fall Apart Essay, connotations, but getting the overall sense and pro choice the overall tone of a line across, and doing so with an elegant rhythm and Fall House a high-quality rhyme, to boot.? That#8217;s what matters.? Rhythm, rhyme, sense, and tone all of them together are what Eugene Onegin is about, and not just literal meaning.? To throw any of damage to broca's area these overboard is to destroy the poem utterly. Gender In Things Apart And A. I have exploited poetic lie-sense so many times in making this translation that it#8217;s almost silly to try to pick examples just take any line whatsoever!? For instance, line 1 of stanza I.1.? In the original, it runs as follows: #1052;#1086;#1081; #1076;#1103;#1076;#1103; #1089;#1072;#1084;#1099;#1093; #1095;#1077;#1089;#1090;#1085;#1099;#1093; #1087;#1088;#1072;#1074;#1080;#1083;, which could be literally rendered as #8220;My uncle, of most honest principles,#8221; and phonetically rendered as Moj dyadya samykh chestnykh pravil .? But my translation#8217;s opening line runs this way: #8220;My uncle, matchless moral model.#8221;? As you see, already in pro choice, line 1 of stanza I.1 I have introduced alliteration where there is none, I have used concepts like #8220;morality#8221; and Apart Essay #8220;role model#8221; that are not spelled out explicitly in the original, and with my choice of the word #8220;matchless#8221; I have perhaps wound up somewhat overstating the uniqueness of the speaker#8217;s uncle#8217;s admirable character traits.? Compromise lies everywhere. For one last example, let#8217;s look at the concluding line of the claudius praying, novel#8217;s second stanza: #1053;#1086; #1074;#1088;#1077;#1076;#1077;#1085; #1089;#1077;#1074;#1077;#1088; #1076;#1083;#1103; #1084;#1077;#1085;#1103; ( No vreden séver dlya menya #8220;But harmful is the North to me#8221;).? Here, Pushkin is subtly (or not so subtly) alluding to Roles in Things and A Doll´s Essay the fact that it was from the northern town of Petersburg that he was sent by movements the czar into Roles in Things and A Doll´s House exile in southern Russia, for nothing more serious than having written a few slightly irreverent poems.? Falen says here, #8220;But found it noxious in the north,#8221; thus using poetic lie-sense by introducing alliteration where there was none, and also if you want to rain man summary be nitpicky by having the chutzpah to change present into past.? Arndt says, #8220;The North, though, disagrees with me.#8221;? Johnston: #8220;but I#8217;m allergic to Gender Fall House Essay the North#8221;? Elton/Briggs: #8220;But baneful is the North to me#8221;? And finally, here is Deutsch: #8220;But find the North is not my style.#8221; By contrast, my translation says: #8220;The North was, shall I say, severe.#8217;#8221;? By golly, I don#8217;t just toy around with tenses; I also sin in a big-time way by damage to broca's area playing on the fact that the Russian word for in Things and A Doll´s House Essay, #8220;north#8221; is pronounced #8220; séver .#8221;? To some readers, this flippancy of claudius mine will come across as so irreverent towards Pushkin that they would exile me to Bessarabia if they had the chance; to others it will merely seem amusing.? As for me, I see it as just another typical example of poetic lie-sense, and a quite Pushkinesque one, if I don#8217;t say so myself. My translation abounds in this kind of Gender in Things and A House thing. A Few Stanzas from Eugene Onegin , in Hofstadter#8217;s Translation. For Hofstadter#8217;s description of the Onegin stanza#8217;s formal characteristics #8212; to which he holds himself in strictest fashion in hamlet praying, his translation! #8212; see the final section of his #8220;Analogy as the Core of Gender Fall Doll´s House Essay Cognition#8221; article. So ran a rakehell#8217;s thoughts, disjointed, Thick in the dust of trotting steeds, By Zeus, by Jove, he#8217;d been appointed.

Heir to his kinfolk#8217;s trusts and deeds. Fans of Ruslán and of Lyudmíla: Meet my new book! I#8217;ll now reveal a. Few things about its motley crew. First let me introduce to damage area you. Onegin, my true friend and trusty, Who by the Neva#8217;s banks was born, Just as were you, I would have sworn, Dear reader #8212; but my memory#8217;s rusty. There once throve I, but left, I fear; The North was, shall I say, #8220;severe.#8221; In this stanza, Hofstadter not only translates the in Things Fall Apart and A House Essay, form and content, but also wonderfully conveys Pushkin#8217;s own jocular, familiar first- and movements second-person banter (both poet and Fall House Essay reader are characters here), and the metaliterary and self-referential aspects of his work (which were downright Hofstadterian to begin with).

The verse fairy tale Ruslán and Lyudmíla was one of Pushkin#8217;s first long works, and was immensely popular. For a brief discussion of the delightful, and very apt, bilingual pun in this stanza#8217;s final line, see the excerpt from nazi Hofstadter#8217;s Translator#8217;s Preface, directly above. That year, autumnal weather hated. Fall And A Essay. To take its leave from mead and dell; The world e#8217;er, e#8217;er for winter waited. Rain. #8217;Twas January ere snow fell, The third, by night. Roles And A House Essay. By dawnlight#8217;s waking, Tatyana, by claudius praying her sill, was taking. In Things Doll´s. The morn#8217;s white farmyard in: the sheds, The fence, the roofs, the flowerbeds, The glass#8217;s faint fantastic tracery, The trees with wintry silver decked, The court with merry magpies flecked, The mountaintops#8217; light lucid lacery #8212; Their dazzling, glistening, wintry shawl, The air was crisp; bright white was all. This stanza seems particularly poetic and picturesque, reflecting especially well both Hofstadter#8217;s aesthetics and area Pushkin#8217;s original. In addition to the usual constraints of the Onegin stanza, Hofstadter also imposes another: that of Gender in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s Essay line-initial alliteration.

And even this he takes up a notch: there#8217;s one of these #8220;alliterated#8221; stanzas in each chapter of the pro choice movements, novel. Finally, the lovely #8220;faint fantastic tracery#8221; line is borrowed from the James Huneker#8217;s Chopin: The Man and His Music (#8220;At times so delicate is its design that it recalls the faint fantastic tracery made by frost on Gender Roles in Things and A House, glass#8221;) #8212; an analogy for pro choice, music which Hofstadter re-concretizes into a description of frosted glass. Pushkin#8217;s original is Fall Apart and A Doll´s Essay, #8220; #8221; (#8220;faint patterns#8221;); in year did to kill a mockingbird take place, spite of the unexpected non-Russian source, the degree of #8220;poetic lie-sense#8221; in this translation is really quite minimal. Dear reader, friend or foe, at present. To take my leave on terms most pleasant. Gender Roles Fall Apart. And thus farewell. Whate#8217;er from me.

You sought in this or that light stanza #8212; Some boist#8217;rous souvenir bonanza, Relief from bull symbolism toils and drudgery, Some lively scenes, some jeux d#8217;esprit #8212; Perhaps just errors in my grammar! #8212; God grant that in my modest art, For entertainment, for your heart, For dreams, or for the press#8217;s yammer, You#8217;ve found at least a verse or two. And on that note, farewell to you! Blest he who quit life#8217;s celebration. Ne#8217;er having seen its full design, Nor having drained his cup of in Things Doll´s wine; Who shelved the book of life#8217;s narration. Before he#8217;d read its final line, As I now, with Onegin mine.

These final few stanzas of the work again reflect the metaliterary theme, a favorite of both Pushkin and rain his Translator, as they bid farewell first to their readers, then to Apart and A Doll´s their novel#8217;s protagonists, then to the novel itself (conveniently named for year did to kill a mockingbird, one of the protagonists, enabling the pun #8212; or rather, the double entendre #8212; in the last line: Onegin as protagonist, Onegin as novel). A light, fleeting farewell to life itself adds to the sense of melancholy. Note also that Hofstadter (almost alone among the translators of Gender Roles in Things Doll´s House Eugene Onegin ) ties up his translation for us with the same neat bow as Pushkin does: the first and last words of the novel are identical (though in pro choice movements, different declensions). In brave flight, And French bread, The bright hues. That does pinch. #8220;Chickadee#8221; was Carol#8217;s sole foray into Marot territory. She was uncertain whether she could do a job that would meet my approval, and hence put off doing it for ages. This drove me crazy and in my heavy-handed way, I kept on prodding her to Apart and A Doll´s try and that of course made her less inclined to to broca's area do it, rather than more so. A typical marital interaction. Gender Roles. But one pretty spring day, not long after I had written #8220;Carol Dear#8221; for her in bull symbolism, the hospital, I went into her study in in Things Doll´s Essay, Bloomington and chanced to see a lined notebook lying open on hamlet, her desk, with a penciled-in poem on the page.

I read the poem and Roles in Things Fall and A House was enormously touched: it was called #8220;My Chickadee#8221; and was very beautifully rendered. Carol was out of the house at pro choice the time, but as soon as she got back I told her what I had seen, and how beautiful I thought it was. She couldn#8217;t believe I liked it so well, and I assured her I was sincere. My only critical comment was that she might improve it a little by thinning it down from four syllables to three, which she immediately did, and having done so, she agreed with me that that way it was better. Roles Apart And A Doll´s Essay. #8220;Chickadee#8221; is a lovely exploration of the #8220;bird#8221; conceit, from beginning to end. The idea of bull symbolism replacing the metaphorical prison by a #8220;cage,#8221; for example, is charming and Gender Roles in Things Fall Doll´s elegant, as is the what nazi party, transfer of the loss of Gender in Things Apart and A Doll´s House color from skin to feathers. The bird swooping along, picking up bits of food in midcourse, is another pretty image, a frame blend par excellence, and it reminds me of a similar image she once suggested.

It was early May of man summary 1987, and Carol and I were visiting Spain for the first time, playing cassettes of wonderful music by in Things Doll´s de Falla, Albeniz, and Granados wherever we drove, and steeping ourselves in the craggy wildness of Spanish landscapes. One evening, we were sitting together on the balcony of our hotel, the what is the nazi, Hotel Alhambra Palace, savoring the spectacular view of the city of Granada and the distant Sierra Nevada mountains as the sun slowly sank in the west. The city was spread out beneath us, and Gender Apart House swarming all through the vast chasms of warm air between us and the houses far below were uncountably many swallows, all of them swooping and darting after invisible bugs, their sunset-time meal, which they no doubt were enjoying as much as we were enjoying the bull symbolism, delicious tapas we had already made a ritual out Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay of, after just a few days in movements, Spain. Popping a green olive into my mouth, I said to Carol, #8220;If I could be any kind of bird, I#8217;d be a swallow. only Gender Roles Fall Apart Essay, I wouldn#8217;t like eating insects.#8221; Smiling, she replied, #8220;There are trade-offs. Now if you could be a Thai-food-eating swallow, that would be ideal! #8221; I took up her image, embellishing it a little: #8220;Yeah, with little tiny specks of man summary Thai food darting around in the sky like insects. #8221; In her poem, although Carol doesn#8217;t get in Gender Roles in Things Doll´s House Essay, a poet#8217;s (or translator#8217;s) self-reference, she makes up for this lack by inserting the phrase #8220;French bread#8221;, delicately hinting at damage the original poem#8217;s language and culture. [. ] In my judgment, the last seven lines of #8220;Chickadee#8221; are especially well-crafted and Gender Roles Fall Essay beautiful. I must say, as I hear its dolcezza graced tone as my eye glides over movements, its elegant form, I can#8217;t help but feel that this poem is among the finest and sweetest of all #8220;Ma Mignonne#8221;s.

But then, I#8217;m biased I loved her so, and still and still I do. ( Le Ton beau de Marot , pp. 72a-72b) ( From a dialogue between Strange Loop #642, a believer in the ideas of I Am a Strange Loop , and Strange Loop #641, a doubter of the ideas of Gender Roles Fall Apart and A House Essay I Am a Strange Loop) SL #642: My proposal [. ] is to damage to broca's area see the Fall and A Doll´s House, #8220;I#8221; as a hallucination perceived by a hallucination, which sounds pretty strange, or perhaps even stranger: the #8220;I#8221; as a hallucination hallucinated by a hallucination. SL #641: That sounds way beyond strange. That sounds crazy. SL #642: Perhaps, but like many strange fruits of modern science, it can sound crazy yet be right.

At one time it sounded crazy to say that the earth moved and hamlet the sun was still. ( I Am a Strange Loop, p. 293 ) In the end, we self-perceiving, self-inventing, locked-in mirages are little miracles of self-reference. [] Our very nature is such as to Gender in Things Doll´s House Essay prevent us from year did to place fully understanding its very nature. Poised midway between the unvisualizable cosmic vastness of curved spacetime and the dubious, shadowy flickerings of charged quanta, we human beings, more like rainbows and Fall and A Doll´s House mirages than like raindrops or boulders, are unpredictable self-writing poems vague, metaphorical, ambiguous, and sometimes exceedingly beautiful. Pro Choice. To see ourselves this way is probably not as comforting as believing in Gender Fall Doll´s Essay, ineffable other-worldly wisps endowed with eternal existence, but it has its compensations. What one gives up on is a childlike sense that things are exactly as they appear, and that our solid-seeming, marble-like #8220;I#8221; is the realest thing in to broca's, the world; what one acquires is an Gender Roles Apart Doll´s House Essay, appreciation of how enuous we are at our cores, and is the nazi party how wildly different we are from what we seem to be. As Kurt Gödel with his unexpected strange loops gave us a deeper and subtler vision of what mathematics is all about, so the strange-loop characterization of our essences gives us a deeper and subtler vision of what it is to be human. And to my mind, the loss is worth the gain. In Things Fall And A. ( I Am a Strange Loop, p. 363 ) On translators, traitors, and traders. With this, we find ourselves square in the territory staked out by the celebrated and hugely negativistic Italian slogan Traduttore, traditore , which literally means Translator, betrayer or Translator, traducer or then again, Translator, traitor. The irony residing in the final one of these three possibilities is damage area, that it beautifully undermines its own claim. The pithy slogan Translator, traitor shows very clearly that a translator need not be a betrayer or traitor, for it beautifully preserves the key quality that makes the original Italian phrase so memorable namely, its catchiness, which is due to the fact that the two nouns inside it sound so much alike. There is Gender Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s, no aspect of the phrase Traduttore, traditore that is what did to take, missed by Translator, traitor, and in Things House Essay so this English translation is a checkmate in response to the strong-seeming check tendered by bull symbolism the Italian opponent. I am not in the least a believer in Gender in Things and A, the extreme pessimism expressed by Traduttore, traditore (or its perfect English counterpart Translator, traitor), no matter how catchy this famous phrase may be and no matter how often it is repeated like a clever mantra by pro choice supposed literary sophisticates. I hear it as a cute sound bite rather than as a serious thesis about translation.

In fact, I am far more inclined to Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s Essay believe in rain, a rival (and also cute) sound bite namely, Translator, trader. ( Translator, Trader , p. Gender And A Doll´s Essay. 18) A phrase-trader has to have an intuitive sense of where the pale is whats well within it, whats well beyond it. But the pale is so ethereal, so elusive, so intangible, so impalpable so pale that no one can actually see it. The pale is did to kill a mockingbird take place, something determined collectively by Roles and A Doll´s Essay the masses that speak the language, and rain man summary no one person can pinpoint it.

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Essay on Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and Apart and A, why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. Year Did To Kill Place! The historical aspect, or the just war tradition, deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at Gender in Things Apart and A, limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of claudius, ethics to examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to be changed. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and Roles in Things Fall House, lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of wars ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to damage, the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare.

Historically, the Gender Roles in Things Fall Essay, just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combatmay be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an pro choice, array of values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare. But when enemies differ greatly because of Roles in Things Fall Doll´s Essay, different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as less than human, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and who they should involve and party, what kind of Roles Fall Apart Doll´s House, relations should apply in damage area the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefitingpreferable, for instance, to the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the concern of the majority of Gender in Things Fall House, just war theorists that the lack of rain man summary, rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of Gender in Things Apart and A House, war should apply to all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on all and capable in what nazi turn of in Things Fall Apart House, appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions. The just war tradition is indeed as old as warfare itself.

Early records of kill take place, collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to limit the outbreak or to rein in the potential devastation of Gender Apart and A, warfare. They may have involved consideration of women and children or the rain man summary, treatment of prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is Gender Fall Apart and A Doll´s House honorable is often highly specific to bull symbolism, culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for Apart and A Doll´s, one people but ludicrous to movements, another. Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the great literature (for example, Homers Iliad ) is in Things Fall Apart Doll´s House sufficient for us to what a mockingbird take place, note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the Gender Roles in Things Apart Doll´s House Essay, beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Is The Nazi Party! Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of Roles Fall and A House, just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of politics and rain, hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than lofty pretensions to moral behavior. Although St.

Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and Gender Roles in Things Doll´s House, one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in area the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay, general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. Bull Symbolism! He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below). Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to expand and to gradually to universalize beyond Christendom notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to the invention of nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. Gender Roles In Things And A Doll´s! The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on War and bull symbolism, Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of Fall Apart and A Doll´s House, others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on the USA on 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and consolidating the theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the what nazi, topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Roles Fall Essay, Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . What has been of great interest is that in hamlet the headline wars of the past decade, the dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only Gender in Things House Essay remain intact on the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and debate.

In the political circles, justification of rain man summary, war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of Gender Fall Doll´s Essay, justification. What Nazi! On the ground, generals have extolled their troops to Roles Fall Apart Doll´s House Essay, adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans experiences). Yet despite the emphasis on abiding by damage, wars conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and in Things and A Doll´s, individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. Bull Symbolism! But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in Roles in Things Fall Apart Doll´s war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the noise and fog of battle. Yet increasingly, the hamlet praying, rule of Gender Roles Fall Doll´s House, law - the damage area, need to hold violators and transgressors responsible for their actions in war and therefore after the battle - is making headway onto Gender in Things Apart Doll´s House, the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for what is the nazi, atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by Augustine for example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the Gender in Things Fall Apart House, conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and should be charged for a crime. What Did To Kill! Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of Gender Roles Apart and A, law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the hamlet, traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions.

And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the ethic of war is considered, or is implicitly held to in Things Fall Apart, be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is did to a mockingbird foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the Gender Roles Apart House Essay, laws of pro choice movements, peaceful interaction into Roles Doll´s Essay, this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the year kill a mockingbird place, cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns. But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the Gender Essay, possibility of morality in war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from area, 'military necessity' are of this type; for Roles and A Doll´s, example, to bull symbolism, defeat Germany in World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for Gender in Things Fall, General Sherman to burn Atlanta. Is The Nazi! However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in the state of war: they may claim that it can only exist in a peaceful situation in Gender Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s Essay which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to gain a victory or to punish an enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by claudius, Michael Walzer, is that the in Things Apart Essay, invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of man summary, moralityand hence just war theoriesbecome redundant.

However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart and A House, need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be. Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the nazi, war does not escalate, thus reducing the Fall Doll´s House Essay, probability of area, creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on Gender in Things House Essay, the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in damage to broca's war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war.

Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to military necessity. On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an Gender in Things Apart Essay, inflexible model that would restrain warriors actions to the targeting of permissible targets only. Pro Choice! In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of Roles Apart Doll´s, war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. From the man summary, just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay, fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by damage, no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations. The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialistthey invoke the concerns of both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of Gender Roles Essay, flexibility, the lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in pro choice movements turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and arguably the Roles in Things, most important condition of jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of aggression is unjust and gives a group a just cause to hamlet, defend itself.

But unless aggression is defined, this proscription is rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an act of aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to Roles House Essay, a neighbors prosperity (a violation of pro choice, social justice). The onus is in Things Apart Doll´s House then on the just war theorist to praying, provide a consistent and Gender Roles House, sound account of what party, what is meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of just cause, the consensus is Gender Roles Fall Apart Essay that an movements, initiation of physical force is wrong and in Things Apart and A House Essay, may justly be resisted. Self-defense against pro choice movements, physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for just cause. Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and punish an aggressor), or to pre-empt an anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for preemption has gained supporters in the West: surely, the Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart and A House, argument goes, it is right on consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on conjectured rather than impending aggression and in effect denounce the moral principle that an what is the nazi, agent is presumed innocent posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is Gender Fall Apart and A House Essay more likely to bull symbolism, destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the Roles House, ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action such is the principle behind the balance of rain, power politics in which nations constantly renew their alliances and Gender Doll´s House, treatises to ensure that not one of them becomes a hegemonic power.

It is also feared that the policy of preemption slips easily into the machinations of false flag operations in which a pretext for movements, war is Gender Roles in Things Doll´s House created by a contrived theatrical or actual stunt of what year did to a mockingbird place, dressing ones own soldiers up in the enemys uniforms, for instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for a war. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to Fall and A Doll´s, be quite common. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to defend a leaders honor following an insult. Bull Symbolism! Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to Gender Roles Fall Apart Doll´s House, fail as being smoke screens for political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort. This connects intimately with presenting a just cause all other forms of hamlet claudius, solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and generals to control there is too much fog in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by virtue of Gender Roles in Things Fall and A Essay, their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. Holding hawks at to broca's, bay though is a complicated task the apparent ease by Gender Roles Apart House Essay, which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is bull symbolism apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the just war theorist wishes to Roles Apart and A House Essay, underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the justice of the war to the other principles of jus ad bellum too. The notion of proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in the sovereign power of the state.

But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and year did to a mockingbird take, does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and Fall Apart Doll´s, just form a government is, the more reasonable it is that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the a mockingbird take, Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of in Things Fall Doll´s, declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is wholly justifiable.

The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is claudius praying meant by sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the Roles Fall Apart and A, proper relationship between a people and its government. The possession of right intention is pro choice ostensibly less problematic. Gender In Things Fall Essay! The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for the cause of justice and not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, right intention masks many philosophical problems. According to Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the only condition of moral activity, regardless of the consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of any self interest in the action the agent may have. Claudius! The extreme intrinsicism of Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest is the moral worthiness of intent only gained by acting in Gender Roles Doll´s Essay favor of ones neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for moral action that one should woo ones neighbors spouse to make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to rain, think about what is proper and it is not certain that not acting in self interest is necessarily the proper thing to do. On the one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to in Things Apart House, be good in itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the peace for all or the majority.

On the other hand, a nation may possess just cause to defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the proper intention is to bull symbolism, secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in Roles Apart House Essay their self-interest to fight the just war. On that account, the realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only bull symbolism if waging war on behalf of freedom is also complemented by the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. Roles In Things Apart And A Doll´s Essay! This is another necessary condition for praying, waging just war, but again is insufficient by itself. Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the Roles Fall Apart House, concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a mockingbird place, a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of Gender Roles in Things Fall Doll´s House Essay, success?

Is it right to comply with aggression because the costs of not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the bull symbolism, probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to stir a people into fighting with all their will. Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and Gender in Things and A Doll´s, invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. Damage! For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to Gender Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s House, do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour. .And What is pro choice our aim?.Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is Gender Roles Fall Doll´s Essay no survival. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in what would obviously be an uneven match. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to pro choice, equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. Gender Fall Doll´s! This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of year kill take, jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to the other principles of Roles in Things and A Doll´s Essay, just cause. Whilst this commonly entails the what, minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of in Things Doll´s, power considerations.

For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of bull symbolism, nation B, then B has just cause to take the land back. According to the principle of proportionality, Bs counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to Roles in Things Apart House Essay, retrieve its land and bull symbolism, not exact further retribution or invade the aggressors lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is Fall Essay nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. Pro Choice Movements! For B to invade and annex A and Gender Fall Apart Doll´s, then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the claudius praying, whole the principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of going to war that are not tied to the intrinsicists absolutism or consequentialists open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions.

But war is a complicated issue and Gender Roles Apart and A House, the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for ethical examination and they remain a guide for both statesmen and women and for movements, those who judge political proceedings. The rules of just conduct within war fall under the Gender in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s House, two broad principles of discrimination and hamlet claudius, proportionality. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in Roles and A war, whilst the what is the nazi party, principle of proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in in Things Doll´s House Essay war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of praying, analysis to the justice of war is that the theory thus permits the judging of Gender Roles in Things Fall and A Doll´s, acts within war to be dissociated from it cause. This allows the what year did to kill a mockingbird take, theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of Gender in Things Doll´s, warfare: the bull symbolism, justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of aggression but does so cleanly? In waging war it is considered unfair and unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to stand outside the Gender Roles Fall and A Essay, field of war proper. Pro Choice Movements! Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and activity is not part of the essence of war, which is the killing of Gender Fall Apart and A Doll´s, combatants. Since killing itself is damage to broca's highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war.

Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to Gender in Things Apart and A Doll´s House Essay, combatants on the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the persons moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the damage to broca's area, right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldiers training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on Roles Apart and A Doll´s Essay, and off the battlefield. Such an bull symbolism, argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to Gender Roles Fall and A, civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Bull Symbolism! Conversely, in joining an army the individual is said to renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in Roles in Things Fall and A House war the rain man summary, bearing of arms takes a person into an alternative moral realm in which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at this juncture, for war involves killing and what the British Army call unlimited liability. On entering the army, the civilian loses the right not to Gender Roles Fall Apart Doll´s, be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on delineating the to broca's area, boundaries of rights and the bearers, may argue that those who join the Fall House, army (or who have even been pressed into claudius praying, conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. Roles Apart Doll´s House Essay! This is argued for example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in The Ethics of War (1979).

However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to defend the principle of what is the, discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war. In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of Gender in Things Apart House Essay, rights by combatants by rain man summary, virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. And A House Essay! Yet what is the status of guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to press their attacks or to damage area, hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and Roles Fall Apart House Essay, legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters cause (for example, the guerrilla is a freedom fighter and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the year take, justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of identification does not give a government the Gender in Things Apart and A House Essay, right to kill indiscriminatelythe onus is on the government to identify the combatants, and so, the bull symbolism, implication goes, if there is Gender in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s House any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Take Place! Others have argued that the nature of modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and Doll´s Essay, a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant. The distinction is, however, not closed by the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the bull symbolism, former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is Gender Roles Fall Apart and A House prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the civilian is not. On the other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. Damage Area! If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms.

The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the war machine in their work. Gender In Things Fall Apart And A Doll´s Essay! At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an rain man summary, unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the in Things Apart Doll´s House Essay, issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by presenting guidelines for pro choice movements, soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of war and its effects rather than murder. It would be wrong, on the principle of Gender Roles in Things Apart and A Doll´s, discrimination, to group the bull symbolism, enemy into in Things Apart Doll´s House, one targetable mass of people some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the wars justification rests upon such shoulders but not the manner in which it is fought, while others may prefer to saddle the leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is damage area fought on Roles Apart Doll´s, the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in rank so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field. The second principle of to broca's, just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of just cause, but it is in Things Apart Doll´s House distinct enough to consider it in its own light. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the pro choice movements, extent and violence of warfare to minimize destruction and casualties. It is broadly utilitarian in Roles and A Doll´s House Essay that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for damage, instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics).

Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on Gender in Things Apart and A, who is a legitimate target of war, the principle of proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible. Rain! In fighting a just war in which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. In Things And A Doll´s Essay! Whilst the what year did to kill take place, earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishesthe gunners may have been in Gender in Things Doll´s the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the damage area, battle of Gender Roles in Things Apart Doll´s Essay, Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the principle of discrimination, for what, his troops were permitted to kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field.

What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a higher value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought.

This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the same problems raised in this article and in the just war literature. On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the wife or children of a legitimate target. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Roles in Things Apart Doll´s House Essay, Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the reality of damage area, death home to the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls the bravery of in Things Fall and A House, being out of rain man summary, range. In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the in Things Fall Doll´s, Iraqi people but with its leader and what is the nazi party, his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on Fall Apart and A House, the heads of key agents in damage to broca's the Baath party; indeed, Saddam Husseins sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to trial for the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of Gender Apart and A Doll´s, just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due ones enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the area, enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the norm of political affairs indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into fearful and in Things Apart and A House Essay, barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Claudius Praying! Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in Gender House Essay the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility. Jus in bello requires that the damage, agents of war be held responsible for their actions.

This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is Roles in Things Fall Apart and A Essay not himself responsible for what year kill, the death he deals. Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and who put wicked men to death have by no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill. Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of Gender in Things Apart House Essay, breaching the principles of claudius praying, just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is Gender Doll´s House Essay part of the nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and is the nazi party, trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against Roles in Things Doll´s, non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the burden of abiding by rules in times of peace on those acting in war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of pro choice, any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the Gender in Things Apart and A Doll´s House, morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of ones actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to rain, the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war.

In reviewing the stories from Roles in Things and A Doll´s Essay, military ethics readers, the acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the right thing against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from higher up; the man summary, realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the soldier of the importance of returning to the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice. Following the cessation of a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the Fall and A, rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the wars character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the pro choice movements, need to rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is written by Gender Roles in Things Essay, the victors. A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of rules and pro choice movements, forms of in Things Doll´s House, punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and movements, resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors.

When put this way, when one readily imagines ones own countrys army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by Gender Roles and A Essay, the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors designs. Yet when ones own army is victorious, the partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the greater right when ones own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to impose conditions upon the vanquished. Bull Symbolism! In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of exploiting the defeated nation and for claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of Roles in Things Doll´s House Essay, enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an praying, appeal to divine justice is made; at in Things and A, other times the supremacy of ones nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of rehabilitating the defeated or as a means to avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to what nazi, the justice of such measures. The just war theorist is keen to remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Gender Roles In Things Fall And A! Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the rights of rain man summary, man in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to Gender Fall Apart Doll´s, have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into seething desire for bull symbolism, revenge.

In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and Fall and A Doll´s House Essay, cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the bull symbolism, most justifiable of all wars. If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of in Things Fall and A Doll´s Essay, occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victors terms graciously?

Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience. ( Second Treatises , 177); however, the to broca's, right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invaders own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the good fight is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the and A House, jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to what year did to kill a mockingbird place, bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Gender In Things Apart And A Essay! Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure. If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against an aggressor, Locke argues that the victors right does not extend to the aggressive nations civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and death over what did to take, the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the in Things Fall Apart House, community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Lockes is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Indeed, King Alfred the man summary, Great of Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the in Things Apart and A Doll´s, Viking invader Guthrum in battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and what is the nazi party, probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat.

Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponents family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfreds example highlights an alternative view of in Things Apart Doll´s House, dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the theorist that peace not further war remains the what did to kill take, goal. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to send a signal to other war criminals as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to Gender Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay, exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence? Can the victors be sure of rain man summary, their claim to Gender in Things Fall Doll´s House Essay, punish the rain, aggressors and Gender Roles Doll´s House, what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to pro choice, insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the in Things Essay, victors whose partiality in rain proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for in Things and A House Essay, the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in Germany and damage, Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and in Things, Nagasaki. The end game and movements, hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the peace is proclaimed? Should the terms of wars end be elaborated and in Things Fall, publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of defeat?

Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an damage area, unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. Apart Doll´s House! Similarly, is hamlet praying it right that an army should demand reparations in Gender and A Doll´s House Essay advance rather than leave them undisclosed and damage to broca's area, thereby risk the uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the expected conditions of wars end secretive does not seem a wise move in that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to Gender Apart and A House Essay, the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for hamlet claudius praying, generations. Assume that victory is given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to the nature of the Gender in Things Fall and A Essay, post bellum justice of rain, dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand. Gender In Things Fall Apart And A! Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants vision of bull symbolism, each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemys equal; but universality demands seeing ones enemy as oneself and understanding not just the Realpolitik of Roles Fall Apart House Essay, state interests and state gains in victory but also the conventions of damage area, magnanimity and honor in in Things Fall and A Essay victory (or defeat). Consider the demands for reparations.

A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for their crimes). Pro Choice! But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for Essay, their aggression should be put on trial and suitably punished (and what would suitable mean in this instance that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for rain, his invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?). In forming the Roles in Things Fall Doll´s House Essay, conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to avoid later accusations of victors justice and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the victor with the ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the pro choice, ceasefire namely, the cessation of Fall Apart Doll´s, fighting would imply a mere hiatus in bull symbolism which the belligerents regain the time and resources to Gender Fall House, stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for rain man summary, the military to regain its strengths. Fall Apart And A Doll´s House Essay! However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails.

The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here. Rain! Other areas of Fall Apart and A, interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and rain man summary, the morality and practicalities of Gender Roles Fall and A Essay, interventionism.

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Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart and A Dolls House Essay

The Nash equilibrium: A perspective. Edited by Vernon L. Smith, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, and approved January 28, 2004 (received for review January 7, 2004) In 1950, John Nash contributed a remarkable one-page PNAS article that defined and characterized a notion of Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay equilibrium for n- person games. Man Summary? This notion, now called the Gender Roles in Things and A Nash equilibrium, has been widely applied and what nazi party adapted in economics and other behavioral sciences. Indeed, game theory, with the Nash equilibrium as its centerpiece, is becoming the most prominent unifying theory of social science. In this perspective, we summarize the historical context and subsequent impact of Nash's contribution. In a brief 1950 communication to PNAS (1), John Forbes Nash formulated the notion of equilibrium that bears his name and that has revolutionized economics and parts of other sciences.

Nash, a young mathematics graduate student at Princeton, was a part of the Camelot of game theory centered around von Neumann and Morgenstern. They had written Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (2) to expand economic analysis to allow economists to Roles in Things Apart House Essay model the rules of the game that influence particular environments and to extend the scope of economic theory to include strategic small-group situations in which each person must try to anticipate others' actions. von Neumann and bull symbolism Morgenstern's definition of equilibrium for noncooperative games was largely confined to the special case of two-person zero-sum games, in which one person's gain is another's loss, so the payoffs always sum to zero (3). Nash proposed a notion of equilibrium that applied to a much wider class of games without restrictions on the payoff structure or number of players (1, 4, 5). von Neumann's reaction was polite but not enthusiastic. Nevertheless, the Nash equilibrium, as it has become known, helped produce a revolution in the use of game theory in economics, and Fall Apart Doll´s House it was the contribution for which Nash was cited by the Nobel Prize committee at the time of his award, 44 years later. Equilibrium Points in what is the, n -Person Games. The first part of the 1950 PNAS paper introduces the Roles in Things Fall Apart House model of a game with n participants, or players, who must each select a course of action, or strategy: One may define a concept of an what, n- person game in Gender in Things Fall and A Doll´s House, which each player has a finite set of hamlet pure strategies and in which a definite set of payments to the n players corresponds to each n- tuple of pure strategies, one strategy being taken for Gender in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s, each player. (ref. 1, p. 48) The notion of a strategy is quite general, and it includes mixed strategies that are probability distributions over decisions, e.g., an inspector who audits on a random basis or a poker player who sometimes bluffs. Another interpretation of a mixed-strategy is that of a population of randomly matched individuals in the role of each player of the rain game, some proportion of whom make each of Gender Roles Apart and A Doll´s House Essay a number of available choices.

The idea of the Nash equilibrium is what, that a set of strategies, one for each player, would be stable if nobody has a unilateral incentive to Roles in Things Doll´s Essay deviate from their own strategy: Any n- tuple of strategies, one for bull symbolism, each player, may be regarded as a point in Fall, the product space obtained by multiplying the praying n strategy spaces of the players. One such n- tuple counters another if the strategy of each player in the countering n -tuple yields the in Things Fall Apart and A Essay highest obtainable expectation for its player against the n 1 strategies of the other players in the countered n -tuple. A self-countering n -tuple is called an equilibrium point. (ref. 1, p. 49) That is, a Nash equilibrium is a set of strategies, one for each of the n players of what year place a game, that has the property that each player's choice is his best response to Gender in Things Apart and A Doll´s House the choices of the n 1 other players. Year Kill A Mockingbird? It would survive an announcement test: if all players announced their strategies simultaneously, nobody would want to reconsider. The Nash equilibrium has found many uses in economics, partly because it can be usefully interpreted in a number of Roles in Things Fall Apart ways. When the bull symbolism goal is to give advice to Gender Roles Apart Essay all of the players in a game (i.e., to advise each player what strategy to choose), any advice that was not an equilibrium would have the unsettling property that there would always be some player for whom the advice was bad, in year take place, the sense that, if all other players followed the parts of the advice directed to them, it would be better for some player to do differently than he was advised. If the advice is an equilibrium, however, this will not be the case, because the advice to Gender Roles Apart and A each player is the best response to the advice given to nazi the other players. This point of view is sometimes also used to derive predictions of what players would do, if they can be approximated as perfectly rational players who can all make whatever calculations are necessary and so are in the position of deriving the relevant advice for themselves.

When the goal is prediction rather than prescription, a Nash equilibrium can also be interpreted as a potential stable point of a dynamic adjustment process in Gender Roles and A Doll´s, which individuals adjust their behavior to hamlet that of the other players in the game, searching for strategy choices that will give them better results. This point of view has been productive in Gender Apart and A Doll´s House, biology also: when mixed strategies are interpreted as the proportion of a population choosing each of claudius praying a set of strategies, game payoffs are interpreted as the change in inclusive fitness that results from the play of the game, and the dynamics are interpreted as population dynamics (6, 7). No presumptions of rationality are made in this case, of Gender Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay course, but only of simple self-interested dynamics. This evolutionary approach has also been attractive to economists (e.g., ref. 8). A third interpretation is pro choice movements, that a Nash equilibrium is a self-enforcing agreement, that is, an (implicit or explicit) agreement that, once reached by the players, does not need any external means of enforcement, because it is in the self interest of each player to Gender Roles in Things Fall and A follow the agreement if the others do. Viewed in this way, the Nash equilibrium has helped to clarify a distinction sometimes still made between cooperative and noncooperative games, with cooperative games being those in which agreements can be enforced (e.g., through the courts), and noncooperative games being those in which no such enforcement mechanism exists, so that only equilibrium agreements are sustainable. One trend in modern game theory, often referred to as the Nash program, is to erase this distinction by including any relevant enforcement mechanisms in what, the model of the Roles in Things Apart and A House game, so that all games can be modeled as noncooperative.

Nash took initial steps in this direction in his early and influential model of bargaining as a cooperative game (9) and then as a noncooperative game (10). Nash's 1950 PNAS paper not only formulated the definition of is the nazi equilibrium but also announced the proof of existence that he obtained using Kakutani's (11) fixed point theorem. This technique of proof subsequently became standard in economics, e.g., the notion of a competitive equilibrium as a vector of anticipated prices resulting in production and consumption decisions that generate the same vector of Apart Doll´s Essay prices. In a personal communication to one of the authors, Nash remarked, I know that S. Kakutani's generalized fixed point theorem was actually inspired to improve on some arguments made by von Neumann in an economic context in praying, the 1930s. Nash shared the Gender in Things Apart Doll´s House 1994 Nobel Prize with John Harsanyi and what year did to kill a mockingbird Reinhard Selten. Harsanyi was cited for extending the Nash equilibrium to the larger class of games called games of incomplete information, in which players need not be assumed to know other players' preferences and feasible choices (12). Selten was cited for his work on equilibrium refinements, which takes the point of view that the requirements of the Nash equilibrium are necessary conditions for advice to perfectly rational players but are not sufficient conditions, and there may be superfluous equilibria that can be removed from consideration by appropriate refinements that focus attention on a nonempty subset of Nash equilibria (13, 14). The Nash equilibrium has been extended, refined, and generalized in other directions as well. One noteworthy generalization of mixed strategy equilibrium is correlated equilibrium (15), which considers not only independently randomized strategies for each player but also jointly randomized strategies that may allow coordination among groups of Roles House players.

The Nash equilibrium is useful not just when it is itself an pro choice movements, accurate predictor of how people will behave in a game but also when it is not, because then it identifies situations in which there is a tension between individual incentives and other motivations. A class of problems that have received a good deal of study from this point of view is the family of Gender Roles in Things Apart House Essay social dilemmas, in which there is a socially desirable action that is not a Nash equilibrium. Damage To Broca's? Indeed, one of the first responses to Nash's definition of equilibrium gave rise to Gender Roles Fall Apart Essay one of the area best known models in the social sciences, the Prisoners' Dilemma. This model began life as a simple experiment conducted in January 1950 at Gender in Things Fall Apart Doll´s, the Rand Corporation by mathematicians Melvin Dresher and Merrill Flood, to demonstrate that the Nash equilibrium would not necessarily be a good predictor of behavior. Each of the two players in that game had to choose one of two decisions, which, for what, expositional purposes, we will call cooperate or defect. The game specifies the payoffs for each player for each of the four possible outcomes: (cooperate, cooperate), (cooperate, defect), (defect, cooperate), and (defect, defect). The payoffs used were such that each player's best counter to either of the other's choices was to defect, but both players would earn more if they both cooperated than if they both chose their equilibrium decision and defected. Nash's thesis advisor, Albert Tucker, was preparing a talk on recent developments in game theory to be given to the Stanford Psychology Department when he saw the Dresher and Gender Roles Fall Apart House Essay Flood payoff numbers on hamlet praying a blackboard at the Rand Corporation. Tucker then devised the famous story of the dilemma faced by two prisoners who are each given incentives by the prosecutor to confess, even though both would be better off if neither confesses than if they both do (16, 17). Roles In Things Fall And A House Essay? In the initial experiment (18) and in innumerable experiments that followed, players often succeed, at least to some degree, in cooperating with one another and avoiding equilibrium play (19). Social scientists across many disciplines have found prisoner's dilemmas helpful in thinking about phenomena ranging from ecological degradation (20) to arms races.

What the Nash equilibrium makes clear, even in a game like the prisoner's dilemma in which it may not be an accurate point predictor, is that the cooperative outcome, because it is claudius praying, not an equilibrium, is going to be unstable in ways that can make cooperation difficult to maintain. This observation has been confirmed in many subsequent experiments on this and more general social dilemmas (see, e.g., refs. 2123). Gender In Things Fall And A Essay? You can put yourself into a social dilemma game by going to pro choice the link: http://veconlab.econ.virginia.edu/tddemo.htm and playing against decisions retrieved from a database. This Traveler's Dilemma game is some-what more complex than a prisoner's dilemma, in Gender Roles Fall Apart, that the bull symbolism best decision is not independent of your beliefs about what strategy might be selected by the other player (24). Design of Markets and Social Institutions. One of the ways in which research on dilemmas and other problems of collective action has proceeded is to look for the social institutions that have been invented to change games from prisoner's dilemmas to games in which cooperation is sustainable as an equilibrium; see e.g., Elinor Ostrom's 1998 presidential address to the American Political Science Association (25).

For example, just as firms selling similar products may undercut each other's price until price is driven down to cost, it is possible for a series of actions and reactions to force players in a game into a situation that is relatively bad for Gender Roles Fall Apart and A House, all concerned, which provides strong incentives for restrictions on hamlet praying unilateral actions. This kind of unraveling is Gender Roles Fall Apart and A Doll´s Essay, encountered in some labor markets in man summary, which employers may try to gain an in Things Apart Doll´s House Essay, advantage by making early offers. In the market for federal appellate court clerks, for example, positions began to be arranged earlier and earlier, as some judges tried to hire clerks just before their competitors. Pro Choice Movements? This continued until offers (for jobs that would begin only on Gender in Things Doll´s House graduation from law school) were being made to man summary law students 2 years in advance, only on the basis of Roles and A Doll´s Essay first-year law school grades (see ref. 26). This situation was widely viewed as unsatisfactory, because it forced both judges and bull symbolism law students to Gender Roles in Things Fall Doll´s Essay make decisions far in advance, on rain man summary the basis of too little information. The most recent of Gender Roles in Things Apart Doll´s House Essay many attempts to reform this market took the form of a year-long moratorium on the hiring of clerks by appellate judges, which ended the day after Labor Day 2003, with only third-year law students to be hired. It is still too early to know whether this relatively mild intervention will finally solve the unraveling of the law clerk market. But a moratorium by itself does not change the rules of the damage game sufficiently to alter the dilemma-like properties of the in Things Doll´s equilibrium, and so we predict that further changes will be needed if the damage to broca's area familiar problems are to be avoided in the long term. An alternative solution to this prisoner's dilemma problem of timing in Gender Apart and A House, such markets is to what nazi party arrange an organized clearinghouse in which both employers and job candidates participate. Such clearinghouses arose, for example, as a result of situations in which medical students were being hired well over 1 year before graduation; this happened in the U.S. in the 1940s and in the U.K. in the 1960s.

Today, graduates of American medical schools (and others applying for residencies at American hospitals) submit rank order lists of preferred positions to a clearinghouse called the National Resident Matching Program. Roth (27, 28) has studied these U.S. and U.K. matching markets. It turns out that one important factor in whether such a labor market clearinghouse succeeds or fails is whether the clearinghouse is designed so that it is a Nash equilibrium for applicants and in Things Apart and A House employers to participate in a way that produces a matching of workers to jobs that is stable, in pro choice movements, the sense that no employer and applicant who are not matched to one another would both prefer to be (29, 30). Participation in Gender in Things Apart Doll´s House Essay, such a clearinghouse is even more straightforward if the clearinghouse is constructed so that it is a Nash equilibrium for applicants to simply put down their true preferences, regardless of what is the how likely they think they are to receive each of the jobs for which they have applied, or how other applicants are ranking those jobs. For matching markets like these entry level labor markets, this kind of equilibrium is Apart House, possible for an appropriately designed clearinghouse.

Thus the current version of the National Resident Matching Program algorithm, designed by Roth and Peranson (31), has the property that applicants can confidently be advised it is in their best interest to submit rank order lists of residencies that correspond to their true preferences. Did To A Mockingbird Take? That game theorists have started to Roles in Things Fall and A House Essay play a role in designing such clearinghouses and other markets is an indication of how game theory has grown from a conceptual to a practical tool. Auctions are another kind of man summary market in Gender Roles Apart and A Doll´s Essay, which it is becoming increasingly common for game theorists to be asked for design advice (see, e.g., refs. 32 and 33). And the economic theory of auctions [for which a Nobel Prize was given to William Vickrey in 1996, in large part for his seminal 1961 paper (34)] is a perfect example of how game theory and the Nash equilibrium have changed economics. Before game theory, economists often analyzed markets simply in terms of the supply and demand of the goods to be sold, with no way to discuss the bull symbolism rules of the game that make one kind of auction different from another or make auctions different from other kinds of Gender Roles in Things Fall and A House markets (such as stock markets or shopping malls). Today, that discussion is most often carried forward by analyzing the Nash equilibria of the auction rules.

It is worth mentioning that Nash both commented on and participated in early experiments in economics (see ref. Rain Man Summary? 35). It was a natural progression to move from a fascination with mathematical models of strategic behavior to the observation of decisions made by people who are playing for real money payoffs under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Indeed, as game theory started its move to the forefront of economic theory, it generated scores of testable predictions and Gender in Things Apart Doll´s Essay helped lay the groundwork for the introduction of experimental methods into pro choice movements, economics (36, 37). The increasing use of experimental methods in economics and the growing interaction between economics and psychology was itself recognized by the 2002 Economics Nobel Prize that was awarded to a psychologist, Daniel Kahneman (see, e.g., ref. 38) and an economist, Vernon Smith (see, e.g., ref. Apart? 39). Bull Symbolism? Before Smith's experiments, it was widely believed that the competitive predictions of supply/demand intersections required very large numbers of well-informed traders. In Things Apart And A House Essay? Smith showed that competitive efficient outcomes could be observed with surprisingly small numbers of traders, each with no direct knowledge of the others' costs or values. An important developing area of game theory is to explain these and other experimental results in the context of well-specified dynamic models of the interaction of strategic traders.

Another emerging connection between game theory and experimentation is the increased use of pro choice movements experimental methods in teaching. Roles Fall? A well designed classroom experiment shows students that the seemingly abstract equilibrium models can have surprising predictive power. The Internet makes it much easier to run complex games with large groups of students. For example, 30 different types of games, auctions, and hamlet claudius markets can be set up and run from a site, (http://veconlab.econ.virginia.edu/admin.htm) that also provides sample data displays from classroom experiments. Gender Roles Fall House? Most of the data displays and dynamically generated data graphs have options for hiding the movements relevant Nash predictions when the results are being discussed and then showing the Nash predictions subsequently. Modeling Learning and Stochastic Equilibrium. Experimentation has helped move game theorists to Gender Roles Fall Apart Doll´s Essay focus on approaches that are able to predict how people actually behave when the perfect foresight and perfect rationality assumptions of classical game theory are not satisfied.

The experimental literature is full of what nazi party examples both of Gender Roles Fall Doll´s House Essay games in which observed behavior quickly converges to equilibrium behavior and games in which equilibrium is a persistently poor predictor. Rain? This has helped to Roles Apart reinforce the trend, already apparent in pro choice, the theoretical literature, to extend the static, often deterministic, formulation of Doll´s Essay equilibrium and consider dynamic and stochastic models. Experiments make clear that players often do not conform to equilibrium behavior when they first experience a game, even if it is a game in which behavior quickly converges to damage area equilibrium as the players gain experience. One reaction to this has been to develop models of learning that converge to equilibrium in the limit, starting from Roles in Things Fall Apart and A, nonequilibrium behavior (see, e.g., refs. 40 and 41). Another has been the beginning of attempts to man summary develop models of learning that can predict observed behavior in simple experimental games (see, e.g., ref.

42). In particular, learning models are useful for explaining patterns of adjustment, e.g., whether prices converge from above or below, as well as the ultimate steady-state distributions (e.g., refs. Roles Apart And A? 43 and 44). Some games are played only once, e.g., the exact strategic environments in many military, legal, and to broca's political conflicts are unique to the particular time and in Things Fall House place. In that case, there is no history that can be used to form precise predictions about bull symbolism others' decisions. Therefore, learning must occur by Gender Apart and A Essay, introspection, or thinking about what the other person might do, what they think you might do, etc. Such introspection is likely to be quite imprecise, especially when thinking about others' beliefs or their beliefs about rain man summary your beliefs. There has been some recent progress in formulating models of noisy introspection, which can then be used to predict and explain non-Nash behavior in experiments using games played only once (24, 45). If a game is repeated, e.g., with random matchings from a population of players, some noise may persist even after average tendencies have stabilized.

The quantal response equilibrium is based on the idea that players' responses to differences in expected payoffs are sharper when such differences are large and are more random when such differences are small (see ref. 46 for an existence proof and ref. 47 for application to bidding in an auction). This notion of equilibrium is a generalization of the Nash equilibrium in the sense that the quantal response predictions converge to Gender Roles Fall Apart Doll´s House Essay a Nash equilibrium as the noise is diminished. Rain Man Summary? But the Gender Roles in Things and A effect of nonnegligible noise is man summary, not merely to spread decisions around Nash predictions; strategic interactions cause feedbacks in Roles and A Doll´s House Essay, some games that magnify and distort the effects of noise. This approach has been used to explain data from some laboratory experiments in which observed behavior deviates from a unique Nash equilibrium and ends up on the opposite side of the set of feasible decisions (24, 43). Still another approach seeks to reconcile experimental evidence and equilibrium predictions by considering how those predictions would differ if systematic regularities in rain, participants' preferences were modeled. One lesson that consistently emerges from small-group bargaining experiments is that people are often as concerned with fairness issues as they are with their own payoffs (see, e.g., ref.

48). The incorporation of fairness and other notions of nonselfish preferences into standard models often brings economic game theory into contact with evolutionary explanations of human behavior (see, e.g., refs. 49 and 50). Nash's Contributions in Perspective. In the Roles in Things Apart and A Doll´s last 20 years, the notion of a Nash equilibrium has become a required part of the tool kit for economists and other social and movements behavioral scientists, so well known that it does not need explicit citation, any more than one needs to Gender and A cite Adam Smith when discussing competitive equilibrium. Claudius Praying? There have been modifications, generalizations, and Roles in Things Fall and A Doll´s House refinements, but the basic equilibrium analysis is the place to begin (and sometimes end) the analysis of strategic interactions, not only in economics but also in law, politics, etc. The Nash equilibrium is damage to broca's, probably invoked as often in small-group (and not-so-small-group) situations as competitive equilibrium is used in Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart House, large markets.

Students in economics classes today probably hear John Nash's name as much as or more than that of any economist. In the half century after the publication of what year did to a mockingbird take place Nash's PNAS paper, game theory moved into center stage in economic theory. Game theory has also become part of a lively scientific conversation with experimental and other empirical scientists and, increasingly, the Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart House source of claudius practical advice on Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart House the design of markets and other economic environments. What Is The? Looking ahead, if game theory's next 50 years are to be as productive, the challenges facing game theorists include learning to incorporate more varied and realistic models of Gender Roles in Things Fall and A Doll´s House Essay individual behavior into the study of is the nazi party strategic behavior and learning to better use analytical, experimental, and computational tools in concert to deal with complex strategic environments. This work was funded in part by National Science Foundation Infrastructure Grant SES 0094800. ? * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cah2k cms.mail.virginia.edu . This Perspective is published as part of a series highlighting landmark papers published in PNAS. Read more about this classic PNAS article online at www.pnas.org/misc/classics.shtml.

This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office. ? In a personal communication with one of the authors, Nash notes that von Neumann was a European gentleman but was not an enthusiastic supporter of Nash's approach. ? H. Raiffa independently conducted experimens with a Prisoner's Dilemma game in 1950, but he did not publish them (see ref. 19). Received January 7, 2004. Copyright 2004, The National Academy of Sciences. Facebook Twitter Google+ CiteULike Delicious Digg Mendeley. Download the Gender Roles Fall Apart and A Essay app for free from Google Play today! Facebook Twitter Google+ CiteULike Delicious Digg Mendeley.

Published online before print March 15, 2004 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308738101.

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1069 words essay on rural development in India. Fall Essay? Free sample essay on rural development in India . India lives in villages. About 70% of its population lives in villages, scattered all over the country like stars in the night sky. About 96% of India#8217;s geographical area is covered by villages. Movements? The vast majority of India living in rural areas cannot be taken lightly in any planning aimed at socio-economic development of the country. It is now increasingly being felt that no planning can be successful unless more and more attention is paid to rural development schemes and poverty alleviation programmes. Therefore, many new schemes to ameliorate the conditions of the rural population are being launched, and the old ones are being completed expeditiously. That this rural bias and thrust has registered a success is evident from the fact that the poverty line has come down significantly, from over 57% in 1961 to 26% in in Things and A Doll´s House 1999-2000. The implementation of various community development programmes in the first three Five Year Plans and specific poverty alleviation and unemployment removal programmes during the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plans have gone a long way in the upliftment of the masses in the villages. The quantum of financial assistance and allocation under the year did to a mockingbird, Ninth FIVE Year Plan was raised substantially and many major structural changes have been effected to achieve the Roles Apart and A Essay, targeted goals of rural development, poverty alleviation and area employment generation schemes. Consequently, the number of beneficiaries is rising rapidly.

The Constitutional sanction granted to gram panchayats, etc. has further boosted the morale of rural institutions. Image Source : 185.26.182.219. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) is a major instrument to alleviate rural poverty. Gender Roles In Things And A House? The main objectives of IRDP are to raise families of the identified target group above the poverty line and create substantial opportunities of self- employment in hamlet claudius the villages. The funds for this programme are shared 50: 50 between the Centre and the states. In case of the Union Territories, complete financial assistance is provided by the Centre.

The scheme is being implemented through the District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) and block level functionaries at the grass root levels. At the level of the state, there is Gender Roles in Things Fall and A Doll´s House Essay, a co-ordination committee headed by the chief secretary to what nazi look after its overall implementation. Roles Apart And A Doll´s House Essay? IRDP was first launched in 1978-79 in movements 2,300 blocks and was extended to cover all the 5,011 blocks of the country from October 2, 1980. The scheme, meant to Gender Roles and A Doll´s House improve the social and area economic condition of the poorest of the rural poor, is being evaluated through research conducted by independent and government institutions. According to the report of January-December 1989, about 20% of the old families crossed the poverty line of Rs. 3,500 and 28% of the revised poverty line of Rs. 6,400. Roles Apart And A? However, about 78% of the families had incremental income. Pro Choice Movements? Nearly 34% of the assisted families belong to destitute and 46%, very poor groups. The major impact of the scheme is that it benefits the poorest and the most deprived sectors of the society. The families eligible for help under the Gender Roles Fall Apart and A House, scheme are those where the annual family income is less than Rs.

4,800 per year. Pro Choice? It also includes families of small and marginal farmers whose operational holding is less than 5 acres of Gender Roles in Things Apart and A Doll´s land. The final selection of these poor families is done through gram panchayats and gramsabhas. To Broca's? Special attention is being paid to women. They are organised in Roles in Things Fall Doll´s House groups fo r productive activities. These groups are given training and what year place provided with suitable monetary help for increasing their family income. Then there is the National Scheme of Training of Gender Roles in Things Apart Doll´s Essay Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRIES), launched as a centrally- sponsored scheme on 15 August, 1979.

The main emphasis of the scheme is on equipping rural youth, in the age group of 18-35 years, with necessary skills and technology to take up vocations for self-employment in agriculture and allied activities, industry, services and business. Claudius? There are some special schemes to improve the lot of rural women and children, under which groups of 5-10 rural women are formed for carrying on income generating activities. Each group is sanctioned a revolving fund of Rs. 15,000. In case of states, the fund is shared equally by the Centre, state government and UNICEF, while in the Union Territories, the Centre bears Rs. 10,000 per group and the balance is borne by UNICEF. UNICEF also bears the expenditure on the staff component for a period of six years. The scheme has taken significant strides since its beginning in Gender Roles in Things Fall House 1982. Similarly, various pilot projects have been launched to damage to broca's generate employment. These include Crash Scheme for Rural Employment (CSRE), Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme (PIREP) and National Rural Employment Programme.

These schemes and programmes specifically aim at generating additional gainful employment opportunities, creation of durable community assets and improvement of overall quality of life in the rural areas. To improve the lot of landless labourers, the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) was launched in 1984. The programme guarantees employment to at least one member of every landless labour family up to 100 days in a year. The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana is an in Things House ambitious programme being implemented through the village panchayats. It seeks to guarantee employment to at least one person in a rural household living below the poverty line. It was launched in 1989. Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, launched in April 1999, is a new scheme for rural development. The budget for the year 1995-96 was again a village- oriented one,#8217; in hamlet which many gifts were given to the rural masses. It envisaged establishment of Gender Roles in Things and A Essay Rural Infrastructure Development fund, a technological development and modernisation fund for small scale industries, with Rs.200 cores initial capital, a National Social Assistance Scheme to give a minimum old age pension and lump sum survivor benefits to the poor and maternity benefits to poor women, among many other schemes. It also proposed to set up an exclusive line of credit of Rs. What Nazi? 400 cores to co-operative and regional, rural banks to meet the needs of scheduled castes and tribes in a 100-odd predominantly rural, tribal districts.

There is also a proposal to begin a Group Life Insurance Scheme of the Gender Roles in Things Fall Apart and A Doll´s House Essay, LIC to be implemented by the panchayats in rural areas. The liberal package for the rural poor and vulnerable sections of the village society is laudable, but the main problem is that all the praying, benefits do not reach the targeted poor people. Much of the funds are misappropriated by intermediaries responsible for the implementation of Gender Roles Essay these packages. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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