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Biographical Fiction Definition Complete List of Book Genres. Home Fiction Biographical Fiction Definition Complete List of Book Genres. Biographical Fiction Definition What#8217;s the best definition for Competence Essay, the biographical fiction genre? Biographical fiction is made up of books that are based on a historical person, with fiction aspects added. The time period of the persons life may be accurate, for car park design, instance, but the circumstances of their life may be changed. A good example would be Lincoln VS Vampires; the story is Intercultural, set in Abraham Lincolns time with some of the definition murder locations and names being completely accurate, but with the fantastical addition of vampires that he slays.

Depending on what fiction aspects are added, also determines what other genres it could fall into. With the example above, the genre would be biographical horror fiction because horror elements (vampires) were added to the biographical story. Scroll below now to see 25 biographical fiction genre examples, or click here to Intercultural Competence Essay, see all fiction genres. Biographical Fiction Definition Examples. Review this list of popular examples to help you get a better understanding of the biographical fiction genre. Multi-user Operating? 1. The Paris Wife by Paula McLain. 2. Loving Frank by Intercultural Competence Essay, Nancy Horan. 3. Definition? Z: A Novel of Zelda Fitzgerald by Therese Anne Fowler. Competence Essay? 4. Asa Citation Website? The Aviator#8217;s Wife by Melanie Benjamin. 5. Half Broke Horses by Jeannette Walls.

6. The Other Boleyn Girl by Intercultural Competence Essay, Philippa Gregory. 7. The Autobiography of car park design, Mrs. Tom Thumb by Melanie Benjamin. 8. The Constant Princess by Philippa Gregory. 9. Remarkable Creatures by Tracy Chevalier. 10.

The Autobiography of Henry VIII: With Notes by His Fool, Will Somers by Margaret George. 11. The Lady Elizabeth by Alison Weir. 12. The Painted Girls by Cathy Marie Buchanan. Intercultural? 13. Definition Murder? The Boleyn Inheritance by Philippa Gregory. 14. Alice I Have Been by Melanie Benjamin.

15. The Chaperone by Intercultural Competence, Laura Moriarty. 16. Deontological Ethics? The White Queen by Philippa Gregory. 17. The Master by Colm Toibin. Intercultural? 18. The Red Queen by Philippa Gregory. Definition? 19. The Women by T.C. Boyle. Competence Essay? 20.

The Lacuna by car park design, Barbara Kingsolver. 21. The Forest Loverby Susan Vreeland. 22. Regeneration by Competence, Pat Barker. Multi-user Operating System? 23. Mistress of the Sun by Sandra Gulland. 24. Frida by Barbara Mujica. 25. Mary, Called Magdalene by Margaret George.

Biographical Fiction Definition Related Book Genres. Click here now to see all. * 1,000+ literary agent profiles and bios. * Searchable by book genre/category. * Preferred query method(s) * AAR membership status. * Personal email addresses. Intercultural? * Links to agency websites. * Maps to Why Whistleblowers, agency offices. When I got the phone call about my publishing offer with Harcourt, I was in my office with three other people. I slammed down the phone, ran into the secretarys office, threw myself down on the floor and said, I got a deal! They sat there and held my hand. I was speechless. Ive never ever been that happy in my life. On my wedding day I wasnt that happy! Getting married and having children are wonderful experiences, but I didnt work to get my children! [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Berkley Books recently published my book in hardcover after Mark helped me get multiple agents interested in my work. I was able to speak with literary agents from top agencies such as Janklow Nesbit, Trident Media, Anderson Lit, and Folio. I signed with Don Fehr at Trident Media and a short time later I had a publishing contract!

Having Mark on Intercultural Competence, your side is incredibly valuable. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Before I decided to work with Mark, I submitted my book to literary agents but didnt get any interest. After I revised my query letter and definition, book proposal, I got several agencies interested and decided to sign with Fine Print Lit, a top literary agency in New York. They got publishers bidding against each other and I ended up signing a contract with Thomas Nelson (an imprint of Harper Collins) for what Ive been told by several people is a very large advance. What cloud is higher than 9? [Click here to Intercultural Competence Essay, see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Before I revised my query letter with Mark, I got no responses. When I sent out deontological ethics theory my new query, I got four requests for more material within 24 hours The support Mark provides is Intercultural Competence, fantastic. His suggestions changed my original query significantly, but they also helped me see that I had something to Why Whistleblowers Be Protected, offer. Now I have a top agent! Mark is smart and reliable and working with him has made all the difference. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews]

Finding Mark has been both a treat and Intercultural Competence, a treasure. I now have two different agents for my work, and a book deal with Sky Horse Publishing. Ive served as Creative Director of the TIME Incorporated Magazine Group; Director of Time World News Service, a Founding Director of TIME-Life Films; Executive Producer for multi-user operating, both the CBS and Competence Essay, NBC Television Networks; and Producer/ Director: Movies of the Week: CBS Cinema Center Films and Universal MCA. You just cant do it alone today as an author. Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected Essay? [Click here to Competence Essay, see all Mark Malatesta reviews] It has been an awfully long and bloody road towards publication but Im finally on my way. Definition? Hard work, struggle, disappointments, and perseverance are important. So is following the advice of publishing industry experts like Mark. He helped me get a top literary agent and now my novel, The Wrong Hand is being published by Penguin Books and their prestigious Michael Joseph imprint, which is principally interested in publishing Top Ten Bestsellers. Its hard not to be excited. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Ballantine Books published my first two novels in hardcover and paperback after Mark Malatesta helped create an auction and bidding war for my books, resulting in a six-figure offer.

Mark is Intercultural, one of the Litigation Process Harassment example rare and genuine good guys, but he also has incredible information (even his ideas have ideas). One of the Intercultural Essay most important keys to success as an Why Whistleblowers Essay author is good information and support. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] I got the number one agent on my wish list thanks to Mark. Hes done more than 100 deals in Intercultural Competence just two year and example, has a long list of accolades, including being talked about in Intercultural Essay the New York Times. Within 4 minutes of sending out my revised query letter, my literary agent called me on the phone. Less than 30 days later I had three major publishers making offers. And, a few days after that, I signed a deal with Random House. Marks query letter did that. [Click here to car park design, see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Not long after Mark helped me land a top literary agent, I got a call from my agent letting me know that I had three different publishing offers from Intercultural Competence, well-known publishers: Amacom, Palgrave Macmillan, and McGraw-Hill who recently published my book in hardcover!

It was a fantastic feeling and a huge smile came over my face. For a moment I felt like life was perfect and the angels were singing. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Mark helped me get five different offers for representation from deontological definition, top literary agents. Competence Essay? I signed with Stephanie Tade who got me a 6-figure book deal with Penguin Books, which published my book in car park design hardcover! When Stephanie first contacted me, she was very excited and said, I cant get your book proposal out of my head. Its brilliant I mean, really, its fantastic. Editors should be salivating by the time they get to Intercultural Competence, the chapter outline. Working with Mark was completely worth it. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews]

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Intercultural Competence Essay

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Nihilism is the belief that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated. It is often associated with extreme pessimism and Competence Essay, a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the Intercultural Essay, greatest crisis in human history. Civil Litigation Process Essay? In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to Intercultural Essay blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to car park design nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism. It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of Intercultural Competence Essay gloom and a good deal of anxiety, anger, and terror.

Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. If we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind. Nihilism comes from the Latin nihil , or nothing, which means not anything, that which does not exist. It appears in the verb annihilate, meaning to bring to nothing, to destroy completely. Early in the nineteenth century, Friedrich Jacobi used the word to negatively characterize transcendental idealism. It only became popularized, however, after its appearance in Ivan Turgenev's novel Fathers and Sons (1862) where he used nihilism to describe the crude scientism espoused by Civil Process Essay example his character Bazarov who preaches a creed of total negation.

In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement (C.1860-1917) that rejected the Competence, authority of the state, church, and family. In his early writing, anarchist leader Mikhael Bakunin (1814-1876) composed the notorious entreaty still identified with nihilism: Let us put our trust in asa citation website, the eternal spirit which destroys and annihilates only because it is the unsearchable and eternally creative source of all life--the passion for Intercultural Competence Essay, destruction is also a creative passion! ( Reaction in Germany , 1842). Why Whistleblowers Essay? The movement advocated a social arrangement based on rationalism and materialism as the sole source of knowledge and individual freedom as the Competence, highest goal. Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected? By rejecting man's spiritual essence in favor of a solely materialistic one, nihilists denounced God and religious authority as antithetical to freedom. Intercultural Competence Essay? The movement eventually deteriorated into definition murder, an ethos of subversion, destruction, and anarchy, and by the late 1870s, a nihilist was anyone associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and assassination. The earliest philosophical positions associated with what could be characterized as a nihilistic outlook are those of the Skeptics. Because they denied the possibility of Competence Essay certainty, Skeptics could denounce traditional truths as unjustifiable opinions. When Demosthenes (c.371-322 BC), for example, observes that What he wished to believe, that is what each man believes ( Olynthiac ), he posits the relational nature of knowledge. Extreme skepticism, then, is linked to operating system epistemological nihilism which denies the possibility of knowledge and truth; this form of nihilism is currently identified with postmodern antifoundationalism.

Nihilism, in fact, can be understood in several different ways. Political Nihilism , as noted, is associated with the belief that the Competence, destruction of all existing political, social, and religious order is a prerequisite for any future improvement. Ethical nihilism or moral nihilism rejects the possibility of absolute moral or ethical values. Instead, good and evil are nebulous, and values addressing such are the product of nothing more than social and Why Whistleblowers, emotive pressures. Existential nihilism is the notion that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, and it is, no doubt, the most commonly used and understood sense of the word today. Max Stirner's (1806-1856) attacks on systematic philosophy, his denial of absolutes, and his rejection of Intercultural Competence Essay abstract concepts of deontological any kind often places him among the first philosophical nihilists. For Stirner, achieving individual freedom is the only law; and the state, which necessarily imperils freedom, must be destroyed. Intercultural? Even beyond the oppression of the car park design, state, though, are the Competence, constraints imposed by Why Whistleblowers Should Essay others because their very existence is an obstacle compromising individual freedom. Thus Stirner argues that existence is an Competence Essay, endless war of each against all ( The Ego and its Own , trans. 1907). 2. Friedrich Nietzsche and ethics theory definition, Nihilism.

Among philosophers, Friedrich Nietzsche is most often associated with nihilism. Intercultural Essay? For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the facades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is multi-user system impotent. Every belief, every considering something-true, Nietzsche writes, is necessarily false because there is simply no true world ( Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and Intercultural Competence Essay, meaning: Nihilism is Civil For Sexual example . . . Competence? not only the Litigation For Sexual Essay, belief that everything deserves to Intercultural Competence Essay perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys ( Will to Be Protected Power ) . The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny the highest values devalue themselves . The aim is Intercultural Competence Essay lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer ( Will to Power ). Essay? Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of Intercultural a defective Western mythos.

This collapse of meaning, relevance, and asa citation website, purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of Intercultural Competence humanity: What I relate is the history of the next two centuries. I describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently: the advent of nihilism . . Car Park Design? . . For some time now our whole European culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe, with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to Intercultural Essay decade: restlessly, violently, headlong, like a river that wants to deontological theory reach the end. . . Intercultural? . ( Will to Essay Power ) Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Essay, Faustian nihilist shatters the ideals; the Apollinian nihilist watches them crumble before his eyes; and the Indian nihilist withdraws from their presence into himself.

Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of operating system epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is Competence already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding. In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already the normal state of man ( The Question of Being ). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the website, symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that Nihilism literally has only Intercultural one truth to car park design declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless ( Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of Intercultural Essay terror. Gloomy predictions of Should Essay nihilism's impact are also charted in Essay, Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the multi-user, Revolution of the Modern Age (1994).

If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become a cold, inhuman world where nothingness, incoherence, and Intercultural, absurdity will triumph. While nihilism is car park design often discussed in terms of extreme skepticism and relativism, for most of the 20th century it has been associated with the belief that life is Intercultural Competence meaningless. Existential nihilism begins with the notion that the world is without meaning or purpose. Given this circumstance, existence itself--all action, suffering, and feeling--is ultimately senseless and empty. In The Dark Side: Thoughts on the Futility of Life (1994), Alan Pratt demonstrates that existential nihilism, in one form or another, has been a part of the Western intellectual tradition from the beginning. The Skeptic Empedocles' observation that the life of mortals is asa citation so mean a thing as to be virtually un-life, for instance, embodies the same kind of extreme pessimism associated with existential nihilism. In antiquity, such profound pessimism may have reached its apex with Hegesias of Cyrene. Because miseries vastly outnumber pleasures, happiness is Intercultural impossible, the philosopher argues, and subsequently advocates suicide. Centuries later during the Renaissance, William Shakespeare eloquently summarized the existential nihilist's perspective when, in this famous passage near the end of car park design Macbeth , he has Macbeth pour out his disgust for life: Out, out, brief candle!

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player. That struts and frets his hour upon the stage. And then is heard no more; it is Intercultural a tale. Told by deontological an idiot, full of sound and fury, In the twentieth century, it's the atheistic existentialist movement, popularized in France in the 1940s and 50s, that is responsible for the currency of existential nihilism in Competence, the popular consciousness.

Jean-Paul Sartre's (1905-1980) defining preposition for the movement, existence precedes essence, rules out any ground or foundation for establishing an essential self or a human nature. When we abandon illusions, life is revealed as nothing; and for the existentialists, nothingness is the source of not only absolute freedom but also existential horror and emotional anguish. Asa Citation Website? Nothingness reveals each individual as an isolated being thrown into an alien and unresponsive universe, barred forever from knowing why yet required to invent meaning. It's a situation that's nothing short of absurd . Writing from the enlightened perspective of the absurd, Albert Camus (1913-1960) observed that Sisyphus' plight, condemned to eternal, useless struggle, was a superb metaphor for human existence ( The Myth of Sisyphus , 1942). The common thread in the literature of the existentialists is coping with the emotional anguish arising from our confrontation with nothingness, and they expended great energy responding to the question of whether surviving it was possible. Competence? Their answer was a qualified Yes, advocating a formula of passionate commitment and impassive stoicism. In retrospect, it was an anecdote tinged with desperation because in an absurd world there are absolutely no guidelines, and any course of system action is problematic. Passionate commitment, be it to conquest, creation, or whatever, is itself meaningless. Enter nihilism. Camus, like the other existentialists, was convinced that nihilism was the most vexing problem of the twentieth century. Although he argues passionately that individuals could endure its corrosive effects, his most famous works betray the extraordinary difficulty he faced building a convincing case.

In The Stranger (1942), for Essay, example, Meursault has rejected the existential suppositions on which the uninitiated and weak rely. Just moments before his execution for theory, a gratuitous murder, he discovers that life alone is reason enough for living, a raison d'etre , however, that in context seems scarcely convincing. In Caligula (1944), the mad emperor tries to escape the human predicament by Intercultural dehumanizing himself with acts of senseless violence, fails, and surreptitiously arranges his own assassination. The Plague (1947) shows the futility of doing one's best in an absurd world. And in his last novel, the short and sardonic, The Fall (1956), Camus posits that everyone has bloody hands because we are all responsible for making a sorry state worse by our inane action and inaction alike. In these works and other works by the existentialists, one is Should Be Protected Essay often left with the impression that living authentically with the meaninglessness of Intercultural life is impossible. Camus was fully aware of the pitfalls of defining existence without meaning, and in his philosophical essay The Rebel (1951) he faces the problem of nihilism head-on. In it, he describes at length how metaphysical collapse often ends in total negation and the victory of nihilism, characterized by profound hatred, pathological destruction, and incalculable violence and death. 4. Antifoundationalism and Litigation example, Nihilism. By the late 20th century, nihilism had assumed two different castes. Intercultural Essay? In one form, nihilist is used to characterize the system, postmodern person, a dehumanized conformist, alienated, indifferent, and baffled, directing psychological energy into Intercultural, hedonistic narcissism or into a deep ressentiment that often explodes in violence.

This perspective is derived from the existentialists' reflections on nihilism stripped of any hopeful expectations, leaving only the experience of sickness, decay, and disintegration. In his study of murder meaninglessness, Donald Crosby writes that the source of Intercultural Competence Essay modern nihilism paradoxically stems from a commitment to honest intellectual openness. Once set in motion, the deontological definition, process of questioning could come to but one end, the erosion of conviction and certitude and collapse into despair ( The Specter of the Absurd , 1988). Competence? When sincere inquiry is extended to moral convictions and social consensus, it can prove deadly, Crosby continues, promoting forces that ultimately destroy civilizations. Michael Novak's recently revised The Experience of Nothingness (1968, 1998) tells a similar story. Both studies are responses to the existentialists' gloomy findings from earlier in ethics theory definition, the century. And both optimistically discuss ways out Essay, of the abyss by focusing of the positive implications nothingness reveals, such as liberty, freedom, and creative possibilities. Novak, for example, describes how since WWII we have been working to climb out of nihilism on the way to building a new civilization.

In contrast to the efforts to overcome nihilism noted above is the uniquely postmodern response associated with the current antifoundationalists. The philosophical, ethical, and Should Be Protected Essay, intellectual crisis of nihilism that has tormented modern philosophers for over a century has given way to mild annoyance or, more interestingly, an Essay, upbeat acceptance of meaninglessness. French philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard characterizes postmodernism as an incredulity toward metanarratives, those all-embracing foundations that we have relied on car park design, to make sense of the world. This extreme skepticism has undermined intellectual and moral hierarchies and made truth claims, transcendental or transcultural, problematic. Postmodern antifoundationalists, paradoxically grounded in relativism, dismiss knowledge as relational and truth as transitory, genuine only until something more palatable replaces it (reminiscent of William James' notion of Competence cash value). The critic Jacques Derrida, for example, asserts that one can never be sure that what one knows corresponds with what is. Since human beings participate in only an infinitesimal part of the whole, they are unable to grasp anything with certainty, and murder, absolutes are merely fictional forms. American antifoundationalist Richard Rorty makes a similar point: Nothing grounds our practices, nothing legitimizes them, nothing shows them to be in touch with the way things are (From Logic to Language to Intercultural Essay Play, 1986). Deontological? This epistemological cul-de-sac, Rorty concludes, leads inevitably to Intercultural Competence nihilism. Faced with the nonhuman, the operating, nonlinguistic, we no longer have the Competence Essay, ability to overcome contingency and pain by appropriation and transformation, but only the ability to recognize contingency and pain ( Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, 1989 ). In contrast to Nietzsche's fears and the angst of the Civil Litigation For Sexual Harassment, existentialists, nihilism becomes for the antifoundationalists just another aspect of our contemporary milieu, one best endured with sang-froid. In The Banalization of Nihilism (1992) Karen Carr discusses the antifoundationalist response to nihilism.

Although it still inflames a paralyzing relativism and subverts critical tools, cheerful nihilism carries the day, she notes, distinguished by an easy-going acceptance of meaninglessness. Such a development, Carr concludes, is alarming. If we accept that all perspectives are equally non-binding, then intellectual or moral arrogance will determine which perspective has precedence. Worse still, the banalization of Competence Essay nihilism creates an Litigation Process For Sexual, environment where ideas can be imposed forcibly with little resistance, raw power alone determining intellectual and Intercultural Competence, moral hierarchies. It's a conclusion that dovetails nicely with Nietzsche's, who pointed out that all interpretations of the world are simply manifestations of will-to-power. It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. Multi-user Operating? As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of Competence Essay gloom and a good deal of anxiety, anger, and murder, terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. If we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind:

I praise, I do not reproach, [nihilism's] arrival. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength. It is possible. . . . Intercultural Competence Essay? ( Complete Works Vol. 13)

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MONEYBALL AT WORK: They've Discovered What Really Makes A Great Employee. Brad Pitt made analytics cool in Moneyball. IMDB. Hiring decisions have always been limited to a few imperfect factors, including what appears on a resume and what impression a candidate gives off in Intercultural Competence Essay, an informal interview. That's all changing. As Dan Shapero, LinkedIn's VP of Talent Solutions and system, Insights puts it, Recruiting has always been an art, but it's becoming a science. Using new tracking and analytic tools, researchers have learned to value things like adaptability, social and emotional intelligence, resilience, and Intercultural Competence Essay, friendliness, as well as raw intelligence. Companies are scouring the theory definition Internet for data about potential employee's professional lives, applying the big data technology to years of employee surveys and tests, and even picking up new data from specially designed games. A big data approach to hiring and management has been embraced by Intercultural Competence Essay, companies like Google , which has an asa citation entire department devoted to Competence Essay, people analytics, according to the New York Times . In the asa citation near future, it will change hiring practices across the board. Just look at w hat similar insights did to professional baseball, as described in Michael Lewis' Moneyball . The Moneyball revolution in baseball led to Competence Essay, lots of old data, tools, and car park design, assumptions getting thrown out.

It was found, for example, that runs batted in (RBI), batting average, and how many wins a pitcher has are not very useful statistics. The same is true for the things that used to matter most to recruiters and managers. Take the resume, long the be all and Essay, end all for for employability. They are relics of the dark ages of recruiting, where big recruiting firms had the only real databases of potential hires, according to Peter Kazanjy, the For Sexual Essay CEO of TalentBin , a startup which scours the web for potential technology hires. There are a couple of problems with resumes that make them not great, Kazanjy argues. One, how the hell do you get access to them? And two, they're not necessarily as data rich as you might expect.

Since most people, especially the Intercultural most in-demand, aren't actively searching, a big hunk of the recruiting process happens before the resume enters the equation. Resumes are actually curious constructs now, because for Process For Sexual example the most part, work and our work product is Intercultural Competence Essay fundamentally digital, Kazanjy says. Sometimes you don't even need [resumes]. The reality of what somebody is and what they do . is already resident on their hard drive or their Evernote or their box.net account or their Dropbox cloud. Much of that information's private. Most people have enough of an online professional presence, however, that it's possible to build a surprisingly complete picture. Companies are using big data sources like TalentBin and tools like LinkedIn Recruiter to go out and find passives, learn about them, and use contact points like a shared connection on LinkedIn, a colleague who went to school with a candidate, or data on their interests to make a more engaging approach.

In fact, the Litigation For Sexual Essay data and services LinkedIn sells to recruiters is Intercultural Essay one of its biggest businesses, accounting for definition murder 57% of its revenue and growing 80% year-over-year. LinkedIn solved part of the supply and demand problem by making the resume a public, rather than private document. Recently it took another step in going beyond the resume by letting people post pictures, slideshows and other content on their professional profiles. Recruiters used to treat college prestige and Intercultural Competence, grades as a critical factor. According to the data, however that's a mistake. Guy Halfteck is the founder and CEO of Knack , a Silicon Valley startup which couples games with advanced data analysis to figure out what sort of characteristics make for multi-user operating system successful and Intercultural, innovative employees. Operating. Clients include Shell, which uses the technology to identify potential innovators, and NYU's department of Essay orthopedics. If companies are trying to quantify success based on deontological ethics theory, which school you went to and what's the ranking of the school and your GPA, etc. those things are not very powerful, Halfteck says. Intercultural Essay. You might get into a school because your father got into the school.

Those are not indicative and insightful about who you are as a person and your potential. Far better to do an analysis based on observing actual behaviors and performance in real time via one of their games, he says. Fifteen minutes of play is enough to create a megabyte of data. Good college grades indicate a certain level of intelligence and diligence, but maybe it's the wrong kind. The highest-value jobs don't come with a ton of instructions. Operating. They require adaptation and learning on the job. Companies want someone who thrives on Intercultural Competence Essay, challenge [and is] willing to learn something new, said Josh Bersin, the principal and founder of Bersin by definition murder, Deloitte, a data-centric HR consultancy. [They want] a seeker of Intercultural information, willing to adapt.

If you're the ethics theory type of person that wants to be told what to do, you might be a straight A student. I n fact you might even be a better student than the other type of person. Prasad Setty, Google's vice president for people analytics, recently told The New York Times that they've found that SAT scores and college GPA don't lead to success at the company, and are no longer used as important hiring criteria. A name brand school matters in as far as it pre-screens for smart, high-achieving students, but it doesn't mean nearly as much as people think. Intercultural Essay. Put to the test, traditional criterion don't hold up, Bersin says. We have a client - an insurance company. They're a Northeast-based sort of traditional Ivy League-led company. They have this culture of only hiring people [who] had MBAs from top schools and so forth, Bersin says. Multi-user Operating System. They looked at the performance of best sales people and they found it had nothing to do with where they went to school, and nothing to do with their grades. Even their references didn't mean all that much.

The ability to perform well in Intercultural Essay, an undefined job means much more. Interviews, which play a role in pretty much every hiring decision, are an exceptionally poor source of data. It's an information problem, Knack CEO Guy Halfteck says. How unique can these questions be? You tend to get more of the same. The ability to attract insights - and Civil Litigation Process Harassment example, predictive insights - and make an intelligent decision based on that info is very poor, Halfteck argues.

People fake it, they put on a show, we all know that interviews are not predictive. Not only are interviews bad sources of data, people aren't all that great at them. Intercultural. Most people don't know how to do good interviews, Josh Bersin says. When most people do an website interview they say 'oh I really like that guy,' well you might like him but that doesn't mean he's right for the job. Interviews are fraught with irrationality.

We select people who are good looking, who look or think like us, or that we kind of like. Computers don't have that problem. The other part of the Moneyball equation is replacing what doesn't work with something that does. To start, there's the Intercultural Competence Essay vast selection of Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected Essay professional data available about Intercultural Competence, people far beyond their resumes. A software engineer might not mention on LinkedIn that they work with iOS. But that doesn't mean you can't find them, says TalentBin's Peter Kazanjy. It's about ethics definition, looking at the massive amount of data people put in the Internet, and taking what he calls the Google approach and Intercultural Essay, using technology to collect and make sense of Should Be Protected Essay it. Humans engage in professional activity all across the web, Kazanjy says. Intercultural. Even if [an engineer] never put it on ethics theory, a LinkedIn profile you can know that he's been tweeting about iOS and Xcode and Objective C, that he's a member of Intercultural Essay meetups on asa citation website, meetup.com or has answered questions on Stack Overflow, or he's following a bunch of repositories on Intercultural Competence Essay, GitHub or he's participating in Apple engineering support email chat lists about Xcode.

That's an iOS engineer, obviously, Kazanjy says, but it's obvious only when you've gone and looked at the implicit activity and said 'ok cool, walks like a duck quacks like a duck, must be a duck' That lets you get beyond what people list as their skills and interests and find the asa citation people who are passionate and engaged with the communities around those skills. Gild, another startup , looks specifically at the quality of the Essay code engineers put up on GitHub, a popular hosting service for software development projects, to find diamonds in the rough. It's even possible to get incredibly useful data out of the way people play games, which may involve intense engagement, reaction, and even reading other people. Knack has built a variety of games that help them find the behaviors and personality traits that boost productivity and performance, to quantify success, in the words of deontological CEO Guy Halfteck. Cognitive ability is Competence a small fraction of what we measure, Halfteck says. We measure everything from creative abilities to emotional and social intelligence, to deontological ethics theory definition, how you think and make decisions . how you interact with emotions, understand emotions, how you learn new information, how curious you are about the world. Halfteck calls it behavioral big data. They'll work with a company and build skill profiles by Intercultural Competence, having a variety of employees play their games. That way, they can find what makes for car park design a successful innovator, manager, or engineer at any given place. A computer can get useful data from every instant of a user's engagement with a game, is better at finding patterns, and Intercultural Essay, is more objective than any human alternative.

The power of big data technology and advances in definition murder, business psychology means that data already stored and information already collected through surveys and assessments are more useful now than ever. Competence Essay. Kenexa, which surveys and assesses some 40 million people a year, was recently bought by IBM for car park design more than $1 billion to boost its capabilities in this growing field. What we're bringing to the table is what we call the Intercultural human insight analytics, Kenexa CMO Tim Geisert says. So what drives engagement from an organizational standpoint? What are the key data points that make people good at what they do in their jobs?

What's supercharged that is the multi-user system technology that can gather that data, Geisert added. The platforms which we run that data on and using it for analytics, insights, and predictability. What employers are looking for today. Every HR person I talk to says that your passion and drive overcomes educational background and ability except for Intercultural Competence one thing, Bersin told Business Insider. The one innate quality that is absolutely necessary for every job is murder learning agility. Essay. That's the ability to definition, pick things up quickly, to learn on the job, and to take initiative. Over and over again, the people who perform best are the ones who don't need to be told what to do, the ones that love challenges, seek information on their own, and quickly adapt. People who follow instructions are mostly substitutable. Intercultural Essay. Those who can be thrown into a new situation and Civil For Sexual example, thrive are truly valuable. Stereotypes about certain jobs are often proved false when you look at Intercultural Competence the data. Most people believe that a good salesperson has to be an outgoing personality, has to be really friendly and good with relationships, Kenexa CMO Tim Geisert says.

Part of murder that's true, but what we've found in our data is that there's actually a trait that's hidden that predicts more success than any of Essay those other more overt traits and that's called emotional courage. It's being resilient, being able to car park design, hear no again and again and Intercultural Competence Essay, keep going. Social and emotional intelligence. Raw analytic power isn't everything. And the need to work well with others isn't just needed for those in customer service. Knack has found that one of the major things that correlates with success across just about any job is social intelligence. One way to think about website, it is that everything we do, and try to achieve inside organizations, requires interactions with others, CEO Guy Halfteck says. Whether you're an innovator, a physician, a teacher, a retailer, or a salesperson, your social abilities, being able to Essay, intelligently manage the system social landscape, intelligently respond to other people, read the Intercultural Essay social situation and reason with social savviness - this turns out to definition, differentiate between people who do better and people who don't do as well.

If you come up with an innovative idea, it likely won't go anywhere if you can't convince anybody. It's not just about creativity. Knack measures aspects of social intelligence, with, among other things, a game called Wasabi Waiter where job applicants play as a server and are measured on how well they read social and emotional signals. One of the most difficult jobs to fill for Intercultural Essay oil companies are production roles - the ones where people spend years out in the field, often living in the desert. When one oil company looked at deontological definition the data for who stuck these jobs out and succeeded, they found surprising results, Josh Bersin says. The company started out the traditional way, looking for people with petroleum degrees, good academic credentials, and so on.

But when they looked at Intercultural Competence the data, that didn't predict success. The head of recruiting found out multi-user operating that the people who were surviving in these jobs - and Competence Essay, these are jobs where the turnover rate was very very high - were mostly people who had come from families that had multicultural parents, parents that had international experience, Bersin says. They grew up in Be Protected, a climate with lots of different types of people around, which wouldn't necessarily be true depending on your college. Another interesting find? The most successful people had played sports in college too. One theater chain that Josh Bersin worked with found a surprising amount of variation in concession sales from theater to theater. When they tried to track down the cause, they found that employees were happier at the high-grossing theaters, and that customers were more satisfied. Naturally, they tried to boost that in Intercultural Competence, all of their stores by training everybody in better service, but six to nine months of training didn't produce results. It wasn't the training, it was the people, the Litigation Process For Sexual example head of HR discovered.

There are people who are wired to be in customers service; they like it, they like people. There are others who aren't, Bersin says. The company's hiring practices were based on Essay, the usual: grades and credentials and asa citation, degrees. They tweaked their screening criteria and pre-hire assessment to Intercultural Competence Essay, focus on whether people had happy personalities, enjoyed being around people, and asa citation website, liked serving others. The return on that investment was in the millions of dollars. At the Competence end of the day, how sharp you are still matters. And so does how fundamentally diligent and deontological definition, careful you are - whether you always want to do a thing well. Through the many games Guy Halfteck and his team have put together, those have been two of the Intercultural constants.

We know certain things about the world. We know that across the entire set of jobs that people can engage in, it's general intelligence that's your processing power and conscientiousness. That you do the right thing and care and plan ahead - those things - and to multi-user system, do the right thing, Halfteck says. Intercultural. These are independent of motivation. Those two aspects of a person are very predictive of performance across any type of deontological job. Increasingly, a high score in baseline attributes like these will mean more and Intercultural Competence Essay, more as companies look for raw potential. With more data and more tools available, more employers are looking for what's known as passive candidates, people that aren't actively job hunting, but might be perfect fits. Deontological. There's an increasing possibility of getting approached for a better job, even if you aren't looking. But they have a harder time finding you if your professional presence online is sparse.

Recruiters are increasingly interested in finding the best candidate based on data, skills, and qualification . That means the bar is higher, says LinkedIn's Dan Shapero. Since recruiters can now proactively find relevant candidates, they have more choices and Essay, can be more selective, Shapero says. Rather than sifting through hundreds of Civil Litigation For Sexual Harassment Essay irrelevant resumes, recruiter can selectively choose who to target and Intercultural Competence, find best candidate for website a job. As a result, recruiters now expect candidates to Intercultural Competence Essay, have a professional presence online that showcases their professional brand, Shapero adds. It's in candidates' best interest to showcase their professional brands online because the majority of recruiters no longer post requisitions on job boards and pray that relevant candidates will apply. They're using recruiting products to proactively search professional sites, like LinkedIn, to find the best and definition murder, brightest.

In addition to Competence, third parties keeping an eye out, according to ethics definition, Shapero, companies like Cisco are using LinkedIn's platform for internal mobility, to identify high performers, identify what they're interested in, and Intercultural, helping advance their careers, which is helpful in retaining top talent.

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+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Essay! Jane is the CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to work for her. How does Jane know that you are the person she’s been waiting for all her life? A list of skills to put on Why Whistleblowers Should, a resume is as important as icing on a cupcake. Intercultural Competence! No one wants a cupcake without icing. No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to put on a resume and how to describe them. This article will show you: Where to website, put work skills on a resume.

What skills to put on a resume to get you MORE interviews. How to list work-related skills on a resume. 31 best examples of how to put your skills on Essay, a CV ( right vs. wrong examples). INFOGRAPHIC that shows the most important resume skills. If you have any questions about your resume skills, make sure to ask in a comment - I will be happy to answer. What to Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out. Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on your resume to make it stand out.

This article will show you how to put key skills on your resume. Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to asa citation, put skills on a resume. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and Essay easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume.

See templates and create your resume here. As you can see, the resume skills section and the resume summary are the Should Essay most visible sections . That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the attention of the hiring manager. Essay! What are key skills for your resume? Key skills are work-related skills that you need to do a job. Most often, you can find key skills in job descriptions. Where do you put skills on a resume? Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over murder, your resume. Not just in Intercultural Essay, the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and it should be in a prominent place on a resume. You can also try putting your skills section in a side column.

Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills.

Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume? Okay, the first thing you need to know is car park design that there are two different types of Intercultural Competence Essay skill sets - hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. Process Example! For example, say you are applying for Intercultural Essay, the position of asa citation website dump truck driver.

So, being able to drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the job. Intercultural Competence Essay! Typical hard skills to list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is operating especially important for professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to include on a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. Essay! A common way to describe soft skills is to operating system, call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to Intercultural, personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume. See examples of how to Why Whistleblowers Should, describe them. Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and defining soft skills for a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on Essay, a resume are valued.

And if you have great soft skills on deontological theory, your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills. For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the Intercultural Competence technical types of skills for a resume . So, what skills are the best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for both of these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance. Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is Essay a good idea. First, you need to choose the best skills for your resume. Intercultural! This is the most daunting part of Why Whistleblowers Should adding a resume skills section.

It may seem simple, but take a look at Competence Essay the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. Asa Citation Website! So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the resume. Competence! That’s great. Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in asa citation, order to Competence Essay, make sure you have ALL of the system good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on your resume?

I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and center . Here's an example of a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume. 1. How to Competence, Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to theory definition, the Job Offer. Intercultural! What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into system a knot with your tongue is Intercultural Essay irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Deontological Definition! Tying cherry stems into Essay knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to Litigation Essay example, make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume.

A good start is to make a master list of job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description. Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of Intercultural Competence skills to Civil Harassment Essay example, add to a resume. Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them?

Which of these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of Essay what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in theory definition, Microsoft Office including Excel and Intercultural Competence Essay Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress.

Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into easily readable material. Asa Citation Website! Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is completely different. We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of your best skills for a resume. Intercultural Competence Essay! Next, match your list to For Sexual Essay, the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the personal skills and Competence talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to another.

Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to multi-user, do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to Competence, survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is theory this important? Because there are different ways to Essay, put work-related skills on car park design, your resume depending on which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for the position. Intercultural Essay! Step 2: You should have most of these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to website, do the job.

For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of large groups. Discuss and present software. Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and Competence possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away.

There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in deontological ethics theory, bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on top of the Competence regular job-related skills. Multi-user Operating System! Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume. Intercultural Essay! Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. Asa Citation Website! Adaptive Skills for Competence, a Resume. Transferable Skills for a Resume. 2. Research People Who Already Have the system Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to Intercultural Competence, peep on other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in that profession. Deontological! Add any duplicates of Essay your skills to definition murder, your resume skills section.

Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value. Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Essay, Excel or Spanish. Theory Definition! Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in Essay, the job description. 4. Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want.

I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to asa citation, make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and Competence your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is a way of Should Be Protected Essay sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on Essay, these examples of skills. Have a look at Should Be Protected Essay our resume skills list. Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Intercultural Essay! Now, you're probably wondering how to deontological definition, put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures.

Forget about superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Beat the Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Competence Essay! Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into definition murder human hands. That’s right. You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. Competence Essay! The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of these keywords.

You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Asa Citation! Around 70-80% of the skills on your resume need to match the job description. Note, the Competence percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume.

What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Why Whistleblowers Should! Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. Intercultural Competence Essay! You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Civil Litigation! Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it. Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most.

The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the Competence Essay most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. So, what are the best technical skills for theory, a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. The number one skill was “Cloud and Essay Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Definition! Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the Intercultural ability to use Microsoft Office and Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for a job. And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the Process Essay example pack. That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for Intercultural Competence Essay, your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume.

And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to Litigation For Sexual Harassment Essay example, put on a resume and how to showcase them. Intercultural Competence! Like the infographic? Feel free to share it or use it on your site. I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about deontological theory definition, what skills to put on a resume or how to add them. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay of blackmail The Crime of Blackmail: A Libertarian Critique. There is something deeply paradoxical about laws that criminalize blackmail. How is it that, as Glanville Williams put it, two things that taken separately are moral and legal whites together make a moral and Intercultural, legal black? [1] For the crime of asa citation, blackmail involves the Intercultural Competence criminalization of two otherwise legal acts when they occur in combination- for example, the threat to definition murder disclose damaging information about another, and the offer to refrain from disclosing it for some valuable consideration. Were Alfred to (threaten to) disclose damaging information concerning Bi11's extramarital affairs, no offense recognized by law would be involved (even if there were something distasteful about such gossip); were Alfred to ask Bill for Intercultural Essay $5000, again there would be no contravention of any proper law (even if it displayed a degree of chutzpah). But were Alfred to threaten Bill that he would disclose information concerning Bill's extramarital affairs unless Bill paid him $5000, his two-part act would under current laws-constitute the crime of blackmail. Why should the conjunction of car park design, such otherwise legal acts have an entirely different legal status? [2] The paradox is Intercultural Essay heightened when we consider the reverse situation. Bill learns that Alfred is in asa citation, possession of damaging information concerning him. He seeks Alfred out, and offers him $5000 to keep silent. If Alfred accepts Bill's offer, and subsequently keeps mum, he should not be held to Intercultural have blackmailed Bill.

Why should the situation be different when Alfred approaches Bill, and example, tells him that his silence will cost $5000? This is the heart of the libertarian critique of Intercultural Competence, blackmail laws, and in this essay I propose to defend that critique against a number of arguments that have been advanced to justify them. Although my critique of such laws depends ultimately on my belief that criminal prohibitions are justified only when some material threat is posed to another (by means of Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected, force, fraud, or theft), my arguments here will show that various attempts to avoid or account for the paradox do not succeed, even on their own terms. Essay. Blackmail (along with other victimless crimes) should be decriminalized. [3,4] Some Definitional Preliminaries. Although standard instances of blackmail involve a threat to disclose damaging information if some monetary payment is not made, the range of possibilities is somewhat wider. Leo Katz, for operating system example, suggests as alternative threats:

Pay me $10,000- or I will: cause some really bad blood at Competence, the next faculty meeting, . . . seduce your fianc, . . . persuade your son that it is his patriotic duty to volunteer for combat in Vietnam, . Car Park Design. . . give your high-spirited, risk-addicted 19-year-old daughter a motorcycle for Christmas, hasten our father's death by leaving the Intercultural Competence Catholic church. Civil For Sexual Essay. [5] Demands as well as threats may vary: usually it is for money, but it could also be for sexual favors or some other valued consideration. Competence. And usually it is for the blackmailer's private and undeserved gain, though it need not be. Imagine, writes Eric Mack, that you can deter a factory owner from murder, (safely) burning his plant to the ground (and thus thoroughly eliminating many employment opportunities) for Competence the sake of destructive glee only by threatening to reveal his secrets. Deontological Theory. Or imagine a case in which one party, by legally permissible trickery and Underhanded dealing, acquired what another party truly deserves. Wouldnt it be perfectly moral for the morally deserving party to Intercultural Competence blackmail the first party into transferring that valued good- especially if what was threatened was precisely the [revelation] of the trickery and underhandedness? [6] In this essay, however, our concern will be largely with paradigmatic informational blackmail in which money is sought for silence. Blackmail should not be confused with extortion. In the latter, a threat to do something that would otherwise be illegal is made in demanding something from another: If Charles threatens to break David's knees or burn down his house if David does not give him $5000, Charles is guilty of Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected Essay, extortion, not blackmail, Extortion is properly considered illegal. Is There Really a Paradox of Blackmail? One might argue that there is nothing particularly paradoxical about blackmail.

George Fletcher, for one, claims that the supposed paradox is not untypical of many acts that are regarded as criminal: many good acts are corrupted by doing them for a price. [7] Fletcher instances bribery, prostitution, and Competence, payment for ethics theory definition confessing to a crime. And Wendy Gordon notes that, our right to vote can neither be transferred gratuitously nor sold. Intercultural Essay. [8] But are these plausible counter instances? The problem with bribery is that it fosters inappropriate motivations in those who are otherwise duty-bound to deontological ethics theory provide certain services. Were bribes no more than tips for services- openly given and received- there would be nothing wrong with them. What makes bribery problematic is not the conjunction of Competence Essay, service and money, but the asa citation fact that money given secretly becomes an incentive to Competence Essay forgo duty and/or to do it only when more is giver than one is contractually obliged to Be Protected Essay accept. Prostitution is a classic victimless crime and should not have been criminalized in the first place. Intercultural. The problem with paid-for confessions is that needy people- and not necessarily guilty people- will be induced into confessing to offenses, with no guarantee that those who are convicted will be those who have offended. Asa Citation Website. An offender may still be on the loose, and those paid to apprehend criminals will have no incentive to look for him. As for the right to Essay vote, it could have been otherwise. The only Process For Sexual Harassment Essay example, reason that political votes (unlike votes in Intercultural Competence, publicly traded corporations) cannot be sold is that a majority has agreed not to commodify them.

Blackmail and Other Commercial Transactions. At first blush, blackmail is Process Harassment Essay like any other commercial transaction: Alfred has a product to sell (secrecy) that Bill wishes to buy. Intercultural Competence. However, some writers have claimed that blackmailers differ significantly from Civil Litigation Harassment example, other sellers since, unlike other sellers, they would give away their product were they not able to sell it. [9] Perhaps so, perhaps not! [10] In any case it is not easy to see any significance to Intercultural Essay the difference. For other sellers, perhaps, the Should product to be sold represents all investment on their part, and therefore something they would be unlikely to give away, whereas the incriminating information that the Intercultural Competence Essay blackmailer possesses is much more likely to car park design have been gained without significant investment. May be the difference lies in Intercultural, motivation, Wendy Gordon suggests that blackmail should be outlawed because the blackmailer acquires information for ethics the sole purpose of obtaining money or advantage from the Intercultural victim, and . . , has no intent or desire to publish the information, except as an instrument toward this purpose. [11] But why should the blackmailer's intent be of any interest to the law unless the conduct in question has independently infringed another's rights? It is not generally of legal concern why we conform our behavior to what the website law allows or requires. Intent only becomes an issue once the law is broken. But since Alfred's disclosure of Bill's infidelities does not constitute conduct of a kind the Intercultural law would ordinarily prohibit, it should not be of any legal interest to know why Alfred may or may not choose to disclose the information he has about Bill. [12] Scott Altman suggests a further difference: whereas in ordinary commercial transaction, both buyer and seller will be beneficiaries, in blackmail the operating system primary beneficiary is the Intercultural blackmailer. [13] But why should the person who buys silence not also be seen as benefiting from the transaction? He has purchased another's silence, something that presumably, benefits him. Asa Citation. It is true that, antecedent to Intercultural Competence Essay the blackmailer's approach, the blackmailee was not seeking to asa citation website purchase the silence of others, but that was because he believed that his secret was safe, and Intercultural Essay, did not need to be secured through purchase.

Blackmail and Coercion. Defenders of laws against blackmail often claim that blackmail is coercive: by threatening to disclose certain damaging information if Bill does not pay $5000, Alfred coerces Bill. [14] Or so it is said. However, the car park design idea of coercion cannot clearly be extended to such cases. In paradigm cases, Alfred coerces Bill into parting with $5000 if he tackles Bill and steals his wallet containing $5000, or if he puts a gun to Bill's head and threatens to Intercultural Competence Essay pull the trigger should Bill refuse to Why Whistleblowers Essay hand over $5000. Intercultural Competence. But if Alfred simply tells Bill that he will disclose his extramarital affairs unless Bill pays $5000, nothing is threatened except Bill's reputation. Car Park Design. And one's reputation is not something one owns as one might own one's body or a piece of property. Reputation is a form of social recognition to which one does not have a right as one might have a right to ones property [15] Should Alfred spread the information without making any claim for Competence Essay money, he will have done nothing illegal. Why should it become illegal just because Alfred tells Bill that he will keep quiet if Bill pays him $5000? Perhaps the argument from coercion can be expressed as follows: The blackmailer's act is definition coercive because he proposes to reveal information that he is obligated not to disclose. [16] But this will not do either. Even if Alfred were obligated not to reveal the information, it would still not show the threat to reveal it to be blackmail; rather, it would be a coercive threat, for example, extortion. It would indeed be legally wrong for Intercultural Competence Alfred to reveal what he told Bill in confidence, but the threat to disclose it unless Bill pays Alfred to Litigation Process For Sexual Harassment Essay keep quiet would be a legal wrong not because it is Intercultural Essay blackmail, but because it breached Alfred's contractual obligation to Bill.

But if there is no obligation for Bill to keep the deontological theory damaging information to Competence himself, then and only then would there be no coercion involved in making it known, Should Alfred accidentally find out about Bill's extramarital affairs, he is Litigation For Sexual Harassment Essay under no obligation at all regarding its disclosure. [17] Why, then, should his informing Bill that he will reveal what Bill has been up to be coercive? Maybe the argument is that Alfred acts coercively because he seeks to exact Bill's money without his consent. [18] Although no literal gun is being pointed at Bill's head, something else is- serious damage to Intercultural Competence Essay his life, reputation, job prospects, or whatever- should he refuse to pay. This account, of course, would not work with cases in which Bill, on hearing that Alfred possesses (and is likely to deontological ethics theory reveal) the information, seeks him out to offer him hush money, but perhaps the supporter of blackmail laws may not mind cutting these cases adrift from the scope of Intercultural, such legislation. Once again, however, we need to remind ourselves of the disanalogy with the gunman. Absent monetary considerations, if the gunman pulls the trigger a legally significant wrong is done to his victim, whereas, if Alfred spills the beans on Bill's philandering no crime is committed. May be one could liken Alfred's act to that of Edward who, seeing Faye drowning, will not throw her a rope unless she agrees to pay him $5000. Definition Murder. [19] This is Intercultural Competence surely exploitative of Faye's situation, but is deontological ethics theory it coercive? Were Edward to Intercultural Essay have pushed Faye into the water in car park design, the first place, there would indeed be an argument for Intercultural saying that the car park design demand for $5000 was coercive; but ex hypothesi he did not, and so, given that he does not violate a legal obligation in not throwing a rope to her, it is hardly coercive for him to demand something for his assistance. [20] Bill's follies, likewise, are his own doing, and not the result of a set up by Alfred, and if Alfred has come into Competence possession of information that could be Bill's undoing, may he not offer to withhold it on his own terms? Blackmail and Exploitation. Perhaps, as I suggested in the last paragraph, blackmail should be seen as exploitative. That is, in blackmailing Bill, Alfred takes advantage of Bill's vulnerability. If so, should this justify its legal proscription?

Note, first of all, that the notion of exploitation is multi-user operating system none-too-clear; it is, for Essay example, used by Marxist writers to characterize ordinary capitalist labor relations: in making a profit, employers of labor are said to return to car park design their employees less than the Essay full value of their labor. Their vulnerable position (their need to eat, support families, and so forth) makes them vulnerable to such shortchanging. But even with a less expansive and less tendentious understanding, there is a gap between exploiting another's vulnerabilities and doing something that should be considered illegal. If George exploits Harold's generosity to get a loan, or Ivan exploits John's poor management of a rival business or even John's sudden and debilitating illness to gain a larger share of the market or to put John out of business, neither George nor Ivan have done anything illegal, however opportunistic they may have been. Deontological. So, if Alfred exploits Bill's vulnerability to Intercultural make some extra money for himself, why should his act be proscribed by Civil Litigation Harassment Essay example, law? Blackmail and Intercultural Competence, Privacy. It might be argued that blackmailers threaten a right one has to multi-user privacy. There is, it may be said, certain information about oneself over which one should have control. It is one's own business, and not the business of others. If it is to Intercultural Competence be given out, it is appropriately given out only Why Whistleblowers Should Essay, if one has consented to Competence its being shared.

If others come by that information accidentally or because someone with whom one has shared it has violated confidentiality, that is too bad. The third party is not guilty of definition murder, any wrongdoing in having or sharing the information. However, if the third party, realizing that one wanted to keep the information to Intercultural Essay oneself, now chooses to use it as leverage for self-enrichment then that person is violating the privacy rights of car park design, another no less improperly than the person who taps one's telephone or bugs one's house or looks in one's personal files. But there are significant differences between these various cases. The person who taps one's phone or bugs one's house or looks at one's files has undoubtedly violated one's property rights in some way- has trespassed, at least. Even private detectives are limited in what they may be permitted to do to obtain information. But the argument from privacy would outlaw private detectives altogether, just because they make a business of getting information that others want to keep secret. Essay. [21] The blackmailer need not violate any so-called privacy rights [22] to obtain his information: a sharp eye, an open ear, and a little advantageous positioning may be all that is necessary. Were the potential blackmailer simply to pass on the information to other interested parties no legal offense would be involved.

Why should that change if the blackmailer seeks to take advantage of what he knows by Why Whistleblowers Essay, seeking cash for silence? Even after their so-called victims have paid up, blackmailers sometimes come looking for more. The damaging information after all, may not have passed out of their heads or hands. It may therefore be argued that the only way to keep blackmailers from repeatedly approaching those who have bought their silence is to ban blackmail altogether. [24] But repeated attempts at blackmail maybe prevented much more easily if blackmail is decriminalized. Essay. All that is required is that blackmailers sign a contract with the blackmailee that stipulates the blackmailers' permanent silence in return for a payment of $X. Then, if the blackmailer breaks his agreement (something he can do even when blackmail is illegal), he can be held liable for whatever damages might be stipulated or otherwise determined by Why Whistleblowers Should, the courts. Competence. In such cases, there will be something legally wrong about deontological ethics theory repeated blackmail that does not apply to the first occasion. What is more, to outlaw blackmail in the first instance because blackmail demands may be repeated in Essay, the future is not to punish someone for a past crime done but for a (potential) future crime- hardly what we have in mind when we speak of criminal justice.

If this were allowed to be a general legal principle, moreover, we would have to entrench in the law the concept of preventive detention, for definition all members of groups statistically over represented in the criminal category. In any case, the argument from repeated blackmail would hold in only a limited number of cases- those in Competence Essay, which there was some likelihood that a further approach would be made or that the agreement would be breached. It would hardly provide a general argument against definition blackmail. The Consequences of Blackmail. Most who favor blackmail prohibition do so on non-consequentialist grounds. They see something inherently problematic about the Intercultural Essay transaction that constitutes blackmail.

Nevertheless, perhaps to boost such arguments, they often supplement them with observations about the effects that decriminalizing blackmail would probably have. Richard Epstein, for example, suggests that were blackmail to be legalized, it would encourage the formation of corporations such as his hypothetical Blackmail, Inc., an organization devoted to ferreting out embarrassing (or worse) information on people and deontological ethics theory, then blackmailing them to Intercultural have it kept quiet. [25] Assuming the asa citation website profitability of Competence, such an enterprise, a blackmailee might find himself the target of website, numerous independent approaches and, to meet the financial obligations incurred by this, might be led (or even encouraged) into committing crimes to pay for his chronic secrecy need. But are such fears well founded? Epstein does not ever show that a world without anti-blackmail laws would spawn a Blackmail, Inc. And even were it to do so, it would not provide a sufficiently strong reason to outlaw it or blackmail. The tastelessness or unseemliness of a social institution is not a sufficient reason to ban it or enterprises that exploit it. We would have as good reason to ban malicious gossip or The National Inquirer . And the social pressure that might lead a person into committing crimes to Intercultural Competence pay for secrecy would not differ substantially from the social pressure to be somebody or impress others, motivations that may be just as likely to lead people to asa citation website commit crimes. [26]

A more limited consequentialist argument has been suggested by Jennifer Gerarda Brown. Competence. [27] She suggests that were blackmail in Why Whistleblowers Be Protected, cases of incriminating information legalized, there would likely be a reduction of crime. The criminally inclined would face the real possibility that they would have to Intercultural split the profits of their criminality or otherwise pay to cover up their crimes, and such costs would constitute a significant deterrent to criminal activity. But this is actually an argument in favor of legalizing blackmail, not prohibiting it. As we noted at the beginning, there is a real difficulty about legally differentiating payer- initiated from seller-initiated silence. If Bill learns that Alfred possesses damaging information that he might be inclined to disclose to others, and multi-user system, offers Alfred $5000 to keep quiet, it is Intercultural Competence hard to argue that Alfred has either coerced or exploited Bill, or that the transaction should be outlawed. The awkwardness of allowing such a differentiation of cases has led some writers to Should Be Protected develop strategies for keeping them together. Thus Scott Altman has claimed: Evidentiary and definitional problems with payer initiation can undermine any power it has to Intercultural Competence Essay separate coercive from non-coercive transactions. Some bargains appear payer-initiated because the payer initially suggests the deal. But the payer might only learn of the other party's intent to Process example reveal the embarrassing information after that party discloses this intent in order to elicit an offer or payment.

Because this case cannot easily be distinguished from genuine payer initiation, permitting payer initiation can insulate paradigmatic blackmail cases from punishment. [28] Similar arguments used to be employed against Intercultural Competence Essay all forms of Civil Litigation Process For Sexual Harassment Essay example, euthanasia, lest it should become a cloak for murder. The solution, were we to persist in outlawing seller-initiated silence, would be essentially the same: the development of procedures that would allow- for most cases- clearer discriminations to Intercultural Essay be made. But since we do not accept the arguments against blackmail laws in the first place, this rescue is unnecessary. Blackmail and Victimization.

Defenders of blackmail laws persist in calling the blackmailee a victim. Once seen as such, blackmailers are easily tarred with wrongdoing. Yet this characterization trades on the conflation of two distinct senses of victim. Civil For Sexual Example. On one account, a victim is Intercultural anyone who is damaged or harmed by deontological, some event: there are earthquake victims and victims of disease. Blackmailees might be seen as victims or potential victims in this sense. Competence. The information possessed by the blackmailer, if disclosed, will damage them in some way. And one might argue that if one kind of damage has been averted it has been averted only at a cost, and - at a stretch - that one is a victim of circumstances that have a cost.

But the term victim may also be used in a more restricted sense - as when we speak of someone being victimized. Here we have in mind someone whose rights have been violated, someone who has been illegally wronged by another. Is the person who is blackmailed a victim in this second sense? It would seem not: if Alfred were to disclose the damaging information about Bill no right of Bill's would have been violated. That he should refrain from doing what he had a right to do in exchange for some monetary consideration does not change the matter. (29) Those who persist in car park design, speaking of Intercultural Essay, blackmailees as victims can mean victim only in the first sense. Yet it is only in the second sense, that victims might have some legitimate legal claim against others. The libertarian conviction is not simply that some instances of blackmail should not be criminalized but that it should never be criminalized.

The libertarian therefore needs to confront some hard cases. (a) Suppose Ken tells Leon that if Leon does not pay him $1000, he will report that Leon is Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected Essay guilty of a crime, which he is already suspected of committing. Competence Essay. The libertarian would not forbid Ken from making this demand, or, if Leon does not pay, he would not prevent Ken from making the false report. Ken has free speech rights, including the right to speak falsely about another. True, the police-and courts-may subsequently accept Ken's word about Leon, so that Leon is unjustly punished, but if they do that, that injustice is on them for website failing thoroughly to investigate Ken's report. As noted above, any damage to Intercultural Competence Essay Leon 's reputation is not damage to something over Why Whistleblowers Essay, which Leon has any rights. (30) While the foregoing is perfectly compatible with libertarian theorizing, it will strike many as repugnant.

After all, the law underlies the social order, even our very civilization. Intercultural Competence. If one may with impunity place a spoke in the whee1 of justice in this manner, it bespeaks ill of the libertarian philosophy. Definition. But there is a solution to this quandary, even apart from the radical substitution of libertarian for statist courts. (31) And that is to pay or tie up witnesses so that they are contractually obligated to tell the Essay truth upon pain of contract violation. Harassment Example. One of the great injustices of our present court system is that witnesses are in Competence, effected drafted into testifying, and, so, for multi-user operating system that matter, are jurors. It would be legally illicit to bear false witness under such circumstances. But, contrary to Altman, the impropriety would then be one of extortion, or contract violation, not blackmail. b) What if Michael learns that Nicholas has embezzled $l million from his company, but suggests to Nicholas that for a payment of $56,000 he will not report it?

Surely, one might argue, Michael has a duty to report what Nicholas has done, and any attempt to profit from an agreement not to Intercultural Competence reveal it should be criminalized. Although some libertarians might balk at cases of this kind, it is certainly open to others - myself included - to argue that whatever moral duty might be claimed to Why Whistleblowers Essay report the Intercultural Competence Essay crimes of another (and not to For Sexual Harassment example profit from them), nevertheless there is no basis for legally requiring that the crimes of another should be reported. Such positive duties- like the positive duty to Intercultural be a good Samaritan- has no place in criminal law. Blackmail laws are often taken for car park design granted. Indeed, such is the moral objecctionableness of blackmail in many people's minds that they cannot imagine how the decriminalization of Essay, blackmail could possibly be supported.

But, like many other practices considered morally and socially objectionable, their objectionableness does not immediately or easily translate into a matter for definition the criminal law. It has been my contention that this is true of Intercultural Competence, blackmail. As the paradox of blackmail should have alerted us, there's indeed something deeply problematic about criminalizing an act that conjoins two other acts that, in themselves, are not criminal. * Walter Block, author of Defending the Undefendable , is Professor of Economics at the University of Central Arkansas , Conway , Arkansas . Email: wblock@mail.uca.edu . The author wishes to thank John Kleinig for his editorial support, which far surpassed the asa citation website ordinary call of editorial duty. 1. Williams, Blackmail , [1954] CRIM. L. REV. 79, at 163 (1954). It was Williams who originally spoke of the paradox of blackmail.

The morality of the Essay constituent acts is, perhaps less clear than their legality. But my concern here is with the justification of blackmail's criminalization not with its morality per se. 2. It might be claimed that using the example of extramarital affairs- though typical -unfairly prejudices the case in Why Whistleblowers Essay, favor the opponent of Intercultural, blackmail. Many would feel that the philanderer deserved what was coning to him- whether it was blackmail or exposure. If the information were of Why Whistleblowers Should Be Protected, a different but still mortifying kind - disclosure that a bank executive always took a rubber duckie into his bath, or wet his bed, or had a black/Jewish grandmother- would we feel as sanguine about the blackmailers opportunism? Perhaps not, but this would not show that the blackmailer should be punished for seeking to get something in return for silence. 3. Essay. Authors offering arguments in favor of the present prohibition of blackmail are numerous. They include: Alldridge, Attempted Murder of the Soul : Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets . 13 OXFORD J. LEGAL STUD. 363 (1993); Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , 141 U. PA. Definition Murder. L. REV.

1639 (1993); Becker, The Case Against Blackmail, unpublished MS (1985); Berman, The Evidentiary Theory of Blackmail: Taking Motives Seriously, 65 U. CHI. L. REV. 795 (1998); Boyle, A Theory of Law and Competence Essay, Information . Copyright, Spleens , Blackmail, and Litigation Process Harassment example, Insider Trading, 80 CALIF. L. REV. 1413 (1992); Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , 141 U. Intercultural Competence. PA.

L. REV. 1935 (1993); Campbell, Why Blackmail Should be Criminalized: A Reply to definition Walter Block and David Gordon, 21 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV. 883 (1933); Campbell, The Anomalies of Blackmail , 55 LEGAL Q. Rev. 382(1939); Coase, The 1987 McCorkle Lecture: Blackmail , 74 VA. L. REV., 655 (1988); Daly Giertz, Externalities, Extortion, and Efficiency; Reply, 68 AM. ECON. REV.

736 (1978); DeLong, Blackmailers, Bribe Takers, and the Second Paradox , 141 U. Competence Essay. P.A, L. REV. 1663 (1993); Ellsherg, The Theory and Practice of Blackmail, in system, BARGANING: FORMAL THEORY OF NEGOTIATION 343 (O.R. Young, ed. 1975); Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., 50 U. Competence. CHI. L. REV., 553 (1983); Evans, Why Blackmail Should be Banned , 65 PHIL. 89 (1990); Feinberg, The Paradox of Blackmail , 1 RATIO JURIS 83 (1988); J. FEINBERG, HARMLESS WRONGDOING (1990); Fletcher, Blackmail . The Paradigmatic Case, 141 U. PA. Civil Process Harassment. L. REV. 1617 (1993); C. FRIED, CONTRACT AS PROMISE 102 (1981); Ginsburg Shechtman, Blackmail: An Economic Analysis of the Law , 141 U. PA.

L. REV. 1849 (1993); Goodhart, Blackmail and Intercultural, Consideration in Contracts , 44 LEGAL Q. REV. 436 (1928), repr. in A.L. GOODHART, ESSAYS IN JURISPRUDENCE AND THE COMMON LAW 175 (1931); Gordon, Truth and Consequences : The Force of Blackmail's Central Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. Definition. l74l (1993); Gory, Nozicks Argument Against Blackmail , 58 PERSONALIST 187 (1977); Gorr, Liberalism and Intercultural Competence, the Paradox of Blackmail , 21 PHIL. Should Essay. PUB. Intercultural Essay. AFF. 43 (1992); Haksar, Coercive Proposals, 4 POL.

THEORY, 65 (1976); Hale, Bargaining, Duress, and Economic Liberty , 43 COLUM. L. Rev. 603 (1943); Hale, Coercion and Distribution in Be Protected, a Supposedly Non-Coercive State , 38 POL. SCI. Q. 470 (1923); Hardin, Blackmailing for Mutual Good 141 U. PA.L.

Rev. 1787 (1993); M. HEPWORTH, BLACKMAIL: PUBLICITY AND SECRECY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 29-40 (1975); Isenbergh, Blackmail from A to C , 141 U. Intercultural Competence. PA. Car Park Design. L. REV. 1905 (l993); Jandoo Harland, Legally Aided Blackmail , 27 NEW L. J. 402 (1984); Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , 141 U. PA. L REW.

1567 (1993); Katz Lindgren, Instead of a Preface , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1565 (1993); Landes Posner, The Private Enforcement of Law, 4 J. Competence Essay. LEGAL. Deontological Theory. STUD. 1 (1975); Lindgren, Unraveling the Paradox of Blackmail , 84 COLUM. L. REV. 670 (1984) Lindgren, More Blackmail Ink; a Critique of Blackmail Inc ., Epstein's Theory of Blackmail 16 COLUM. L. REV. 909 (1984) Lindgren, In Defense of Keeping Blackmail A Crimes: Responding to Intercultural Block and Gordon, 20 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV.

35 (1986); Lindgren, Blackmail; On Waste, Morals and Ronald Coase 36 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 597 (1989); Lindgren, Kept in the Dark; Owen's View of Blackmail, 21 CONN. L. REV. System. 749 (1989); Lindgren, Secret Rights: A Comment on Intercultural, Campbell's Theory of Blackmail , 21 CONN. L. REV. 407 (1989); Lindgren, Blackmail: An Afterword , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1975 (1993); Lindgren, The Theory, History and Practice of the Bribery-Extortion Distinction , 141, U. PA. L. REV. 1695 (1993); Lyons, Welcome Threats and Coercive Offers , 50 PHIL.

425 (l975); Murphy, Blackmail; A Preliminary Inquiry, 63 MONIST 156 (1980); R. NOZICK, ANACHY, STATE, AND UTOPIA (1974); Owens, Should Blackmail be Banned ?, 63 PHIL. 501 (l979); R.A. Car Park Design. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (4th ed. 1992); Posner, Blackmail, Privacy and Freedom of Contract, 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1817 (1993); Shavell, An Economic Analysis of Threats and Their Legality: Blackmail, Extortion and Robbery , 141 U. PA L. REV. 1877 (1993); Tooher, Developments in Intercultural Essay, the Law of Blackmail in England and website, Australia , 27 INT.

COMP. L. Intercultural. Q., 337 (1978); Waldron, Blackmail as Complicity , unpublished MS (1992); Williams, Blackmail, supra n.1; Winder, The Development of Blackmail , 5 MODERN L. REV. 21 (1941). 4. In contrast, here is the libertarian case for the repeal of definition, laws prohibiting blackmail: Mack, In Defense of Essay, Blackmail, 41 PHIL. STUD. 273 (1982); M.N. R0THBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY (1998); M.N. ROTHBARD, MAN, ECONOMY AND STATE 443 n. Multi-user Operating. 49 (1993); Block , The Blackmailer as Hero , THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM 1 (Dec. 1972); W. Intercultural Essay. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE 44-49 (1976; 1991); Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights; A Reply to Professors Posner, Epstein, Nozick and Lindgren , 19 LOYALAS OF LOS ANGELES.

REV. 37(1985); Block, Trading Money for Silence, 8 U. HAWAII L. REV. Multi-user. 57(1986); Block, The Case for De-Criminalizing Blackmail: A Reply to Intercultural Lindgren and Campbell , 24 WESTERN STATE U. L.REV. 225 (1997); Block, A Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , 33 IRISH JURIST 280 (1998); Block McGee, Blackmail from A to Z , 50 MERCER L. Car Park Design. REV. Intercultural Essay. 569 (1999); Block, Towards a Libertarian Theory of murder, Blackmail , J. LIBERTARIAN STUD. (forthcoming); Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime , 31 BRACTON L. J. 24 (1999); Block, Kinsella, Hoppe, The Second Paradox of Blackmail , Q, J. BUS. Essay. ETHICS, (forthcoming); Block, Let's Legalize Blackmail , SETON HALL L. Asa Citation. Rev (forthcoming); Block, Blackmailing For Mutual Good VERMONT L. REV. (forthcoming); Block Anderson, Posner on Blackmail; A Critique (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail and Economic Analysis , THOMAS JEFFERSON. Competence Essay. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Threats, Blackmail, Extortion, Robbery and Other Bad Things TULSA L. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail is Private Justice , U. BRIT. COLUM. L. REV. (forthcoming).

5. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , supra n. Car Park Design. 3, at 1567-68. Sometimes the threat may take the form of an offer- though of a form that Hillel Steiner refers to as a throffer- in which failure to take it up is associated with threatened consequences. See Steiner, Individual Liberty , 75 ARISTOTELIAN SOCY PROC. 33, at 39 (1974-75). 6. Mack, In Defense of Blackmail , supra n. 4, at 277. To counter the response that these are cases in Intercultural, which the blackmailees are being blackmailed only into asa citation not doing something, Mack suggests that the factory owner might be blackmailed into donating money for Essay Cambodian relief (278).

7. Fletcher, Blackmail; The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. Definition Murder. 3. 8. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1744. 9. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Competence, Blackmail , supra n. Car Park Design. 3, at 1640. 10. Restaurants and supermarkets often donate day old food to Competence Essay the poor. 11. Gordon, Truth and definition murder, Consequences , supra n. Competence Essay. 3, at 1746. Mack's counter-examples (supra n. Theory. 6) cast some doubt on the generality of this claim.

12. In actual fact, a blackmailer's motives might be much more complicated. Although taking monetary advantage of a situation may well be one consideration, moral umbrage might also figure, along with, say, a more remote desire to obtain money to pay for a sick child's operation. Competence. Gordon's characterization of the blackmailer's intent might- in certain cases, at least-apply equally to many other currently legal commercial ventures, which people may undertake. 13. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1641. 14.

The simple fact of a threat is not sufficient to make the act coercive (and hence illegitimate). If I threaten to sue you for the damage you have caused to Litigation Process Harassment example my car, unless you pay for its repair, my threat constitutes no illegitimate coercion. Should it be argued that some threats one has a right to Essay make (as in the latter case) whereas others one has no right to make (as in blackmail), the libertarian will reply that this begs the question: Why should Alfred not threaten to Litigation Process For Sexual reveal Bill's extra-marital affairs unless some payment is made? 15. Intercultural. Should it be objected that the destruction of reputation by means of disclosure of car park design, information about one does constitute a violation of rights (as is sometimes allowed by Essay, laws against libel and defamation), the Should libertarian will respond that the question is begged. A libertarian would not agree to the enforceable securing of reputation against damaging information. Intercultural. On this see W. Litigation Process Harassment Essay Example. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, Supra n.4, at 59-62; M. Intercultural. ROTHBARD, ETHICS OF LIBERTY, supra n. 4, at 121-22. 16. For this argument, see Altman, A Patchwork Theory of For Sexual Harassment, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1642, fn. 11.

For a rejoinder, see Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime supra n. Essay. 4, text at note 23. 17. That may be too strong: perhaps there is a moral or religious obligation not to gossip about others. And perhaps what is private does not change its status as a result of Why Whistleblowers, becoming known to Intercultural Competence another. Multi-user Operating. But there is no enforceable legal obligation not to pass on the information that has come into ones possession. 18. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm-Twisting , supra n. 3, at 1599. 19. Competence Essay. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra p. 3, at deontological ethics, 1643. 20. I am, of course, assuming that there is no Good Samaritan law requiring that assistance be given.

Were there such a law, a libertarian would of course oppose it. 21. That surely goes for investigative reporters, newshounds, and gossip columnists as well. They also profit from Essay, information that others would prefer to keep secret. 22. Libertarians reject privacy rights that are not reducible to property rights- rights not to have one's property bugged or phone tapped.

See M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY, Supra 4, at 121-22. 23. Although some jurisdictions do recognize torts for violation of privacy, libertarians are opposed to ethics such constraints, because such torts must allow -what I challenge- that people can have property rights in their reputation. 24. See e.g., Fletcher, Blackmail: The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3, at 1623, 1627. See also Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1648. Competence Essay. Fletcher sees the possibility of the blackmailer's coming back for more as constituting a permanent domination of the blackmailer over the blackmailee. But that is only if no contract is made between the blackmailer and blackmailee forbidding any further claims. 25.

Richard Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., supra n. 3. 26. System. For an extended discussion, see Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights , supra n. Intercultural Essay. 4. 27. Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , supra n. 3. 28. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1649. 29. Indeed, one might be inclined to argue that the blackmailer displays a kind of decency toward the blackmailee by offering him a way out of deontological ethics theory definition, his predicament (the blackmailer's opportunity to Intercultural Essay damage the potential blackmailee by disclosing- as he has a right to do- the information he has on car park design, him).

The gossip provides no such injury-averting option. See Block Gordon, Blackmail, Extortion and Intercultural Competence Essay, Free Speech , supra n. 4, at website, 39: In contrast to the gossip, who tells the secret without even affording the victim the opportunity of purchasing silence, the blackmailer can be seen as a benefactor. 30. Competence Essay. See W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, supra p. Definition. 4, at 59-62; also, M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY supra n. 4, at l26-27. 31. On this see M. ROTHBARD, FOR A NEW LIBERTY (1973)

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